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Fluid_Mechanics_CIVIL 2012.pdf

# Fluid_Mechanics_CIVIL 2012.pdf

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11/26/2012

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Fluid Mechanics Sessional1Level/Term: ....................., Session: ......................Classes commencing from ..................................
INDEX
ExperimentNo.Experiment Name Page No.
1 Centre of Pressure 12 Bernoulli’s Theorem 63 Flow Through Venturimeter (Pipe flow) 114 Flow Through an Orifice 165 Flow Through an External CylindricalMouthpiece246 Flow over a Sharp-Crested RectangularWeir287 Flow over a V-notch 348 Fluid Friction in a Pipe 399 Head Loss due to sudden Contraction andsudden Expansion in a Pipe44

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Fluid Mechanics Sessional2
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CE 242, Fluid Mechanics SessionalExperiment No. 1
CENTRE OF PRESSURE
General
The centre of pressure is a point on the immersed surface at which the resultant of liquid pressure force acts. In case of horizontal area the pressure is uniform and theresultant pressure force passes through the centroid of the area, but for an inclinedsurface this point lies towards the deeper end for the surface, as the intensity of pressure increases with depth. The objective of this experiment is to locate the centreof pressure of an immersed rectangular surface and to compare this position with thatpredicted by theory.
Practical Application
In designing a hydraulic structure (e.g a dam) we need to know the overturningmoment about O created by water pressure on the structure. In this case M
o
=Fxd,where F is the force on the dam and d is the distance of the center of the pressure frombottom.Fig 1 Practical application off Centre of Pressure
Description of Apparatus
The apparatus is comprised basically of a rectangular transparent water tank, whichsupports a torroidal quadrant of rectangular section complete with an adjustablecounter-balance and a water level measuring device.The clear Perspex (acrylic resin) rectangular water tank has a drain tap at one end anda knurled levelling screw at each corner of the base. Centrally disposed at the top edgeof the two long sides, are mounted on the brass knife-edge supports. Immerged withinthe tank and pivoted at its geometric centre of curvature on the knife-edge supports, isan accurate torroidal quadrant (ring segment). This is clamped and dowelled to analuminum counter-balance arm which has a cast-iron main weight with a knurled headbrass weight for fine adjustment at one end and a laboratory type weight pan at theother end. Two spirit levels are mounted on the upper surface of the arm.The water level is accurately indicated by a point gauge which is at one end of thetank.

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Fluid Mechanics Sessional3
Theory
The magnitude of the total hydrostatic force F will be given byF =
Ayg
ρ
Where
ρ
= density of fluid
g
= acceleration due to gravityy = depth to centroid of immersed surfaceA = area of immersed surfaceThis force will act through the centre of pressure C.P. at a distance y
p
(measuredvertically) from point 0, where 0 is the intersection of the plane of the water surfaceand the plane of the rectangular surface.Theoretical Determination of y
p
:Theory shows that
AyIyy
CGp
+=
where
y
= distance from 0 to the centroid CG of the immersed surface.I
CG
= 2
nd
moment of area of the immersed surface about the horizontal axisthrough CG.Experimental Determination of y
p
:For equilibrium of the experimental apparatus, moments about the pivot P giveF.y = W.Z= MgZwhere y = distance from pivot to centre of pressureM = mass added to hangerZ = distance from pivot to hangerTherefore
FMgZy
=
buty = y
p
+ r -y
1
[Fully submerged]and y = y
p
+ r +y
1
[Partially submerged]Thereforey
p
= y (r y
1
) [Fully submerged]and y
p
= y (r + y
1
) [Partially submerged]wherer = distance from pivot to top of rectangular surfacey
1
= depth of water surface from top of rectangular surface

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