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This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization or of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
WHO Technical Report Series916
Report of aJoint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation
World Health OrganizationGeneva 2003
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataJoint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention ofChronic Diseases (2002 : Geneva, Switzerland)Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expertconsultation, Geneva, 28 January -- 1 February 2002.(WHO technical report series; 916)1.Chronic disease -- epidemiology 2.Diet -- standards3.Feeding behavior 4.Energy metabolism 5.Motor activity6.Cost of illness I.Title II.Series.ISBN 92 4 120916 X (NLM classification: QU 145)ISSN 0512-3054
World Health Organization 2003
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing andDissemination, World Health Organization, 20avenueAppia, 1211 Geneva27,Switzerland(tel: +41227912476;fax:+41227914857;e-mail:bookorders@who.int).RequestsforpermissiontoreproduceortranslateWHOpublications---whetherforsaleorfornoncommercialdistribution---shouldbeaddressedto Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int).The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply theexpressionofanyopinionwhatsoeveronthepartoftheWorldHealthOrganizationconcerningthelegalstatusofanycountry,territory,cityorareaorofitsauthorities,orconcerningthedelimitationofitsfrontiersorboundaries.Dottedlinesonmapsrepresentapproximateborderlinesforwhichtheremaynotyet befull agreement.The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they areendorsed orrecommendedby theWorld HealthOrganizationin preference toothersofasimilar naturethat are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products aredistinguished by initial capital letters.The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication iscomplete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.This publication contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does notnecessarily representthedecisions orthestatedpolicy oftheWorld Health Organization orofthe Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Typeset and printed in Switzerland
1Reference 32.
42.1 The global burden of chronic diseases 42.2 The double burden of diseases in the developing world 82.3 An integrated approach to diet-related and nutrition-related diseases 9References 103.
Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends
133.1 Introduction 133.2 Developments in the availability of dietary energy 143.3 Availability and changes in consumption of dietary fat 173.4 Availability and changes in consumption of animal products 203.5 Availability and consumption of fish 223.6 Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables 233.7 Future trends in demand, food availability and consumption 253.8 Conclusions 27References 294.
Diet, nutrition and chronic diseases in context
304.1 Introduction 304.2 Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseasesthrough the life course 314.2.1 Fetal development and the maternal environment 314.2.2 Infancy 324.2.3 Childhood and adolescence 344.2.4 Adulthood 384.2.5 Ageing and older people 394.3 Interactions between early and later factors throughout the life course 404.3.1 Clustering of risk factors 414.3.2 Intergenerational effects 414.4 Gene--nutrient interactions and genetic susceptibility 414.5 Intervening throughout life 42References 465.
Population nutrient intake goals for preventing diet-related chronic diseases
545.1 Overall goals 545.1.1 Background 545.1.2 Strength of evidence 545.1.3 A summary of population nutrient intake goals 55References 59

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