The physical system.
The processes taking place during hydraulic fracturing are among the most complex encountered inreservoir engineering.
discussion,they may be divided into the following categories.
the rock under stress
fracture extension could be obtained, in princIple, by solving the three-dimensional equations
nonlinear elasticity together with appropriate failurecriteria and mass balance on injected fluid. Thenonlinear character
the problem has beenrecognized,22,23 but due to the extreme complexity
the general problem, the analyses have been based ontwo-dimensional, linear elasticity solutions
The design method
Perkins and Kern,
improved by Nordgren,
usesthe solution in the vertical
while the methods
Geertsma and de Klerk and Daneshy9 use thesolution in the horizontal plane, which tends topredict larger fracture width. The current researcheffort
directed toward description
the threedimensional character
fracture growth andfracture containment.
Flow in the fracture and leakoff into the formationaffect the fracture shape as well as length. Thenonlinear behavior
complex fracture fluids
taken into account in existing design methods as faras the flow in the fracture
concerned, but the flowfrom the fracture to the reservoir has been accountedfor by leakoff coefficients derived from onedimensional flow.
While this approach
justified for most situations typical for fracturingtreatments, the multidimensional character
flowand multi phase flow effects are important in otherapplications2
and obviously for postfractureperformance predictions.
from the obvious applications in thermalrecovery, heat transfer
important when the fluidproperties are sensitive to temperature. Several in-
vestigators proposed methods
estimating the heattransfer during injection
and after shut-in
using various assumptions
fracture dynamics andfluid flow.
reality, heat transfer
linked intimately to fluid flow, in particular to the leakoffdistribution along the fracture face, and it also canaffect the stress field significantly.
can include effects such as chemical reactions in acidizing, breakup
gels and foams, andother physical and chemical processes associated withthe use
complex fluids.As pointed
before, there are a number
strong interactions between the mechanisms involved. A design method that would be applicableover the wide range
conditions encountered mustconsider all basic mechanisms simultaneously and, assuch, can be based only
The model describes two-dimensional, compressible,two-phase flow and heat transfer in a reservoirsimultaneously with initiation and propagation
avertical fracture from a well located at the origin
the coordinate system (Fig.
While the flow andheat transfer
described by the appropriate differential equations, the elasticity problem
simplified by the use
the known analytical solutions.The rigorous solution
the rock mechanics can beincorporated in this model, but it presents a muchmore difficult problem and does not seem feasiblefor practical applications because
In this model, the equations
elasticity areeliminated using the following assumptions.
The fracture propagates in the
direction.2. Pressure drop resulting from flow in thefracture has a negligible influence
fracturegeometry.3. The fracture width
constant in thevertical direction at any distance
from the well, andthe fracture height
equal to the pay thickness
This model8assumes plane strain conditions in the
plane, with no shear strength or friction
theinterfaces with the base-and caprock.As a consequence, fracture shape in the
planewill be elliptical, and the pressure in the fracture canbe
as a functi.on
pressure, elastIc properties, and in-situstresses only. Hagoort
derived the equations forfracture initiation pressure
and fracture opening/closure pressure
whicli consider the effect
pore pressure. Theresulting equations used in the simulator are
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