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06/15/2009

 
49
3
Design of Experiments
 Jack B. ReVelle, Ph.D.
3.1OVERVIEW
Design of experiments (DOE) does not sound like a production tool. Most people whoare not familiar with the subject might think that DOE sounds more like somethingfrom research and development. The fact is that DOE is at the very heart of a processimprovement flow that will help a manufacturing manager obtain what he or she mostwants in production, a smooth and efficient operation. DOE can appear complicated atfirst, but many researchers, writers, and software engineers have turned this conceptinto a useful tool for application in every manufacturing operation. Don’t let the conceptof an experiment turn you away from the application of this most useful tool. DOEscan be structured to obtain useful information in the most efficient way possible.
3.2BACKGROUND
DOEs grew out of the need to plan ef 
cient experiments in agriculture in Englandduring the early part of the 20th century. Agriculture poses unique problems forexperimentation. The farmer has little control over the quality of soil and no controlwhatsoever over the weather. This means that a promising new hybrid seed in a
eldwith poor soil could show a reduced yield when compared with a less effectivehybrid planted in a better soil. Alternatively, weather or soil could cause a new seedto appear better, prompting a costly change for farmers when the results actuallystemmed from more favorable growing conditions during the experiment. Althoughthese considerations are more exaggerated for farmers, the same factors affectmanufacturing. We strive to make our operations consistent, but there are slightdifferences from machine to machine, operator to operator, shift to shift, supplier tosupplier, lot to lot, and plant to plant. These differences can affect results duringexperimentation with the introduction of a new material or even a small change ina process, thus leading to incorrect conclusions.In addition, the long lead time necessary to obtain results in agriculture (thegrowing season) and to repeat an experiment if necessary require that experimentsbe ef 
cient and well planned. After the experiment starts, it is too late to includeanother factor; it must wait till next season. This same discipline is useful inmanufacturing. We want an experiment to give us the most useful information in theshortest time so our resources (personnel and equipment) can return to production.One of the early pioneers in this
eld was Sir Ronald Fisher. He determined theinitial methodology for separating the experimental variance between the factorsand the underlying process and began his experimentation in biology and agriculture.
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC
 
50
The Manufacturing Handbook of Best Practices
The method he proposed we know today as ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Thereis more discussion on ANOVA later in this chapter. Other important researchers havebeen Box, Hunter, and Behnken. Each contributed to what are now known as classicalDOE methods. Dr. Genichi Taguchi developed methods for experimentation thatwere adopted by many engineers. These methods and other related tools are nowknown as robust design, robust engineering, and Taguchi Methods
.
3.3GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
TABLE 3.1Glossary of Terms and Acronymns
ConfoundingWhen a design is used that does not explore all the factor levelsetting combinations, some interactions may be mixed with eachother or with experimental factors such that the analysis cannottell which factor contributes to or in
uences the magnitude of the response effect. When responses from interactions or factorsare mixed, they are said to be
confounded.
DOEDesign of experiments is also known as industrial experiments,experimental design, and design of industrial experiments.FactorA process setting or input to a process. For example, thetemperature setting of an oven is a factor as is the type of rawmaterial used.Factor level settingsThe combinations of factors and their settings for one or moreruns of the experiment. For example, consider an experimentwith three factors, each with two levels (H and L = high andlow). The possible factor level settings are H-H-H, H-L-L, etc.Factor spaceThe hypothetical space determined by the extremes of all thefactors considered in the experiment. If there are
factors in theexperiment, the factor space is
-dimensional.InteractionFactors are said to have an interaction when changes in one factorcause an increased or reduced response to changes in anotherfactor or factors.RandomizationAfter an experiment is planned, the order of the runs israndomized. This reduces the effect of uncontrolled changes inthe environment such as tool wear, chemical depletion, warm-up, etc.ReplicationWhen each factor level setting combination is run more than onetime, the experiment is
replicated.
Each run beyond the
rst onefor a factor level setting combination is a
replicate.
ResponseThe result to be measured and improved by the experiment. Inmost experiments there is one response, but it is certainlypossible to be concerned about more than one response.
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC
 
Design of Experiments
51
3.4THEORY
This section approaches theory in two parts. The
rst part is a verbal, nontechnicaldiscussion. The second part of the theory section covers a more technical, algebraicpresentation that may be skipped if the reader desires to do so.Here is the question facing a manager considering an experiment for a manufac-turing line: What are my optimal process factors for the most ef 
cient operation pos-sible? There may be many factors to be considered in the typical process. One approachmay be to choose a factor and change it to observe the result. Another approach mightchange two or three factors at the same time. It is possible that an experimenter willbe lucky with either of these approaches and
nd an improvement. It is also possiblethat the real improvement is not discovered, is masked by other changes, or that acheaper alternative is not discovered. In a true DOE, the most critical two, three, orfour factors (although higher factors are certainly possible, most experiments are in thisrange) are identi
ed and an experiment is designed to modify these factors in a planned,systematic way. The result can be not only knowledge about how the factors affect theprocess, but also how the factors interact with each other.The following is a simple and more technical explanation of looking at the theoryin an algebraic way. Let
s consider the situation of a process with three factors: A,B, and C. For now we
ll ignore interactions. The response of the system in algebraicform is given by(3.1)where
β
0
is the intercept,
β
1
,
β
2
, and
β
3
are the coef 
cients for the factor levelsrepresented by
 Χ 
 A
 ,
 Χ 
 B
 ,
and
 
 Χ 
 ,
and
 
ε 
 
represents the inherent process variability.Setting aside
ε
for a while, we remember from basic algebra that we need fourdistinct experimental runs to obtain an estimate for
β
0
,
β
1
,
β
2
, and
β
3
(note that
ε
and
β
0
are both constants and cannot be separated in this example). This is basedon the need for at least four different equations to solve for four unknowns.The algebraic explanation in the previous paragraph is close to the underlyingprinciples of experimentation but, like many explanations constructed for simplicity, itis incomplete. The point is that we need at least four pieces of information (fourequations) to solve for four unknowns. However, an experiment is constructed to providesuf 
cient information to solve for the unknowns
and 
to help the experimenter determineif the results are statistically signi
cant. In most cases this requires that an experimentconsist of more runs than would be required from the algebraic perspective.Statisticallysigni
cantA factor or interaction is said to be statistically signi
cant if itscontribution to the variance of the experiment appears to belarger than would be expected from the normal variance of theprocess.
TABLE 3.1 (continued)Glossary of Terms and Acronymns
YXX
 AB
=++++ββββε
0123
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC

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