P1: OSO/OVY P2: OSO/OVY QC: OSO/OVY T1: OSOGTBQ0101-16 GTBQ0101-Wang-v16 May 24, 2006 9:33
Chapter 16. Design of Two-Way Floor Systems
Historically, ﬂat slabs predate both two-way slabs on beams and ﬂat plates. Flat slabﬂoors were originally patented by O. W. Norcross [16.2] in the United States on April29, 1902. Several systems of placing reinforcement have been developed and patentedsince then—the four-way system, the two-way system, the three-way system, and thecircumferential system. C. A. P. Turner [16.2] was one of the early advocates of a ﬂatslab system known as the “mushroom” system. About 1908, the ﬂat slab began beingrecognized as an acceptable ﬂoor system, but for many years designers were confronted with difﬁculties of patent infringements.Actually the terms
[Fig. 16.1.2(a)], and
[Fig.16.1.2(b)]arearbitrary,becausethereisinfacttwo-wayactioninallthreetypesand a ﬂat (usually nearly square) ceiling area usually exists within the panel in all threetypes. Following tradition, the implication is that there are beams between columns intwo-way slabs; but no such beams, except perhaps edge beams along the exterior sides of the entire ﬂoor area, are used in ﬂat slabs or ﬂat plates. From the viewpoint of structuralanalysis, however, the distinction as to whether or not there are beams between columnsis not pertinent, because if beams of any relative size could be designed to interact withthe slab, use of beams of zero size would be only the limit condition.If methods of structural analysis and design are developed for two-way slabs withbeams, many of these general provisions should apply equally well to ﬂat slabs or ﬂatplates. Until 1971 the design of two-way slabs supported on beams was, historically,treated separately from the ﬂat slabs or ﬂat plates without beams. Various empiricalprocedures have been proposed and used [16.6–16.8]. Chapter 13 of the present ACICode takes an integrated view and refers to two-way slab
with or without beams.In addition to solid slabs, hollow slabs with interior voids to reduce dead weight, slabs(such as wafﬂe slabs) with recesses made by permanent or removable ﬁllers between joists in two directions, and slabs with paneled ceilings near the central portion of thepanel are also included in this category (ACI-13.1.3).Thus the term two-way
systems (rather than the term two-way
systems asin the ACI Code) is used in this book to include all three systems: the two-way slab withbeams, the ﬂat slab, and the ﬂat plate.
16.2 GENERAL DESIGN CONCEPT OF ACI CODE
Thebasicapproachtothedesignoftwo-wayﬂoorsystemsinvolvesimaginingthatverticalcuts are made through the entire building along lines midway between the columns.The cutting creates a series of frames whose width lies between the centerlines of thetwo adjacent panels as shown in Fig. 16.2.1. The resulting series of rigid frames, takenseparatelyinthelongitudinalandtransversedirectionsofthebuilding,maybetreatedforgravity loading ﬂoor by ﬂoor, as would generally be acceptable for a rigid frame structureconsisting of beams and columns, in accordance with ACI-8.9.1. A typical rigid frame would consist of (1) the columns above and below the ﬂoor, and (2) the ﬂoor system, with or without beams, bounded laterally between the centerlines of the two panels (onepanel for an exterior line of columns) adjacent to the line of columns.Thus the design of a two-way ﬂoor system (including two-way slab, ﬂat slab, and ﬂatplate) is reduced to that of a rigid frame; hence the name “equivalent frame method.”As in the case of design of actual rigid frames consisting of beams and columns,approximate methods of analysis may be suitable for many usual ﬂoor systems, spans,and story heights. As treated in Chapter 7, the analysis for actual frames could be(a) approximate using the moment and shear coefﬁcients of ACI-8.3, or (b) more ac-curate using structural analysis after assuming the relative stiffnesses of the members.