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Reinforced Concrete Design, 7th Edition - Sample Pages

Reinforced Concrete Design, 7th Edition - Sample Pages

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Published by: boss trisha on Jan 28, 2009
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P1: OSO/OVY P2: OSO/OVY QC: OSO/OVY T1: OSOGTBQ0101-16 GTBQ0101-Wang-v16 May 24, 2006 9:33
Design of Two-WayFloor Systems
In reinforced concrete buildings, a basic and common type of floor is the slab–beam–girder construction, which has been treated in Chapters 8, 9, and 10. As shown in Fig.16.1.1(a), the shaded slab area is bounded by the two adjacent beams on the sides andportions of the two girders at the ends. When the length of this area is two or more timesits width, almost all of the floor load goes to the beams, and very little, except some nearthe edge of the girders, goes directly to the girders. Thus the slab may be designed as aone-way slab as treated in Chapter 8, with the main reinforcement parallel to the girderand the shrinkage and temperature reinforcement parallel to the beams. The deflectedsurface of a one-way slab is primarily one of curvature in its short direction. When the ratio of the long span
to the short span
as shown in Fig. 16.1.1(b) isless than about 2, the deflected surface of the shaded area becomes one of curvature inboth directions. The floor load is carried in both directions to the four supporting beamsaround the panel; hence the panel is a
two-way slab.
Obviously, when
is equal to
, thefour beams around a typical interior panel should be identical; for other cases the longerbeams take more load than the shorter beams.Two-way floor systems may also take other forms in practice. Figures 16.1.2(a) and(b)show
floorconstruction.Thesearecharacterizedbytheabsenceof beams along the interior column lines, but edge beams may or may not be used at theexterior edges of the floor. Flat slab floors differ from flat plate floors in that slab floorsprovideadequateshearstrengthbyhavingeitherorbothofthefollowing:(a)droppanels(i.e., increased thickness of slab) in the region of the columns; or (b) column capitals
Figure 16.1.1
One-way vs. two-way slabs.
P1: OSO/OVY P2: OSO/OVY QC: OSO/OVY T1: OSOGTBQ0101-16 GTBQ0101-Wang-v16 May 24, 2006 9:33
16.1 General Description
Flat slab (waffle slab) with capitals in the Fisher Cleveland Plant.
(Courtesy of Portland Cement Association.)
(i.e., tapered enlargement of the upper ends of columns). In flat plate floors a uniformslab thickness is used and the shear strength is obtained by the embedment of multiple-
stirrups, structural steel devices known as
shearhead reinforcement
[see Fig. 16.16.1(b)],or shear stud reinforcement [see Fig. 16.16.2] within the slab of uniform thickness.Relatively speaking, flat slabs are more suitable for larger panel size or heavier loadingthan flat plates.
Figure 16.1.2
Flat slab and flat plate floor construction.
P1: OSO/OVY P2: OSO/OVY QC: OSO/OVY T1: OSOGTBQ0101-16 GTBQ0101-Wang-v16 May 24, 2006 9:33
Chapter 16. Design of Two-Way Floor Systems
Historically, flat slabs predate both two-way slabs on beams and flat plates. Flat slabfloors were originally patented by O. W. Norcross [16.2] in the United States on April29, 1902. Several systems of placing reinforcement have been developed and patentedsince then—the four-way system, the two-way system, the three-way system, and thecircumferential system. C. A. P. Turner [16.2] was one of the early advocates of a flatslab system known as the “mushroom” system. About 1908, the flat slab began beingrecognized as an acceptable floor system, but for many years designers were confronted with difficulties of patent infringements.Actually the terms
two-way slab
[Fig. 16.1.1(b)],
flat slab
[Fig. 16.1.2(a)], and
flat plate
[Fig.16.1.2(b)]arearbitrary,becausethereisinfacttwo-wayactioninallthreetypesand a flat (usually nearly square) ceiling area usually exists within the panel in all threetypes. Following tradition, the implication is that there are beams between columns intwo-way slabs; but no such beams, except perhaps edge beams along the exterior sides of the entire floor area, are used in flat slabs or flat plates. From the viewpoint of structuralanalysis, however, the distinction as to whether or not there are beams between columnsis not pertinent, because if beams of any relative size could be designed to interact withthe slab, use of beams of zero size would be only the limit condition.If methods of structural analysis and design are developed for two-way slabs withbeams, many of these general provisions should apply equally well to flat slabs or flatplates. Until 1971 the design of two-way slabs supported on beams was, historically,treated separately from the flat slabs or flat plates without beams. Various empiricalprocedures have been proposed and used [16.6–16.8]. Chapter 13 of the present ACICode takes an integrated view and refers to two-way slab
with or without beams.In addition to solid slabs, hollow slabs with interior voids to reduce dead weight, slabs(such as waffle slabs) with recesses made by permanent or removable fillers between joists in two directions, and slabs with paneled ceilings near the central portion of thepanel are also included in this category (ACI-13.1.3).Thus the term two-way 
systems (rather than the term two-way 
systems asin the ACI Code) is used in this book to include all three systems: the two-way slab withbeams, the flat slab, and the flat plate.
Thebasicapproachtothedesignoftwo-wayfloorsystemsinvolvesimaginingthatverticalcuts are made through the entire building along lines midway between the columns.The cutting creates a series of frames whose width lies between the centerlines of thetwo adjacent panels as shown in Fig. 16.2.1. The resulting series of rigid frames, takenseparatelyinthelongitudinalandtransversedirectionsofthebuilding,maybetreatedforgravity loading floor by floor, as would generally be acceptable for a rigid frame structureconsisting of beams and columns, in accordance with ACI-8.9.1. A typical rigid frame would consist of (1) the columns above and below the floor, and (2) the floor system, with or without beams, bounded laterally between the centerlines of the two panels (onepanel for an exterior line of columns) adjacent to the line of columns.Thus the design of a two-way floor system (including two-way slab, flat slab, and flatplate) is reduced to that of a rigid frame; hence the name “equivalent frame method.”As in the case of design of actual rigid frames consisting of beams and columns,approximate methods of analysis may be suitable for many usual floor systems, spans,and story heights. As treated in Chapter 7, the analysis for actual frames could be(a) approximate using the moment and shear coefficients of ACI-8.3, or (b) more ac-curate using structural analysis after assuming the relative stiffnesses of the members.

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