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Sewage Treatment

Sewage Treatment

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Published by: akhilt29 on Jan 28, 2009
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10/02/2011

 
Sewage treatment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sewage treatment
, or
 
domestic wastewater treatment
, is the process of removing
 
 
from
 
 
and household sewage, both
 
 
(effluents) anddomestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical,chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (ortreated
 
effluent) and a solid waste or
 
 
suitable for discharge or reuse back into theenvironment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many
 
 
organic andinorganic compounds.Sewage is created by residences, institutions, hospitals and commercial and industrialestablishments. It can be treated close to where it is created (in
 
 
 
or
 
aerobic treatment systems), or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant (see
 
 
and
 
pipes andinfrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state andfederal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specializedtreatment processes (see
 
Industrial wastewater treatment). The sewage treatment involves three stages, called
 
 primary 
,
 
secondary 
 
and
 
tertiary treatment 
. First, the solids are separated from the wastewater stream. Then dissolvedbiological matter is progressively converted into a solid mass by using
 
indigenous,water-borne micro-organisms. Finally, the biological solids are neutralized then disposed of or re-used, and the treated water may be disinfected chemically or physically (for example bylagoons and
 
micro-filtration). The final effluent can be discharged intoa
 
 
 
bay,
 
 
or
 
wetland, or it can be used for the
 
 
of a golf course,green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for
 
 
recharge oragricultural purposes.
 
[edit]
Description
Raw influent (sewage) includes
 
 
liquidfrom
 
 
 
 
 
sinks, and so forth that is disposed of via
 
sewers. Inmany areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The draining of household waste into
 
 
and
 
 
is becoming more common in thedeveloped world, with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycledfor flushing toilets. A lot of sewage also includes some surface water from roofs or hard-standing areas. Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential, commercial, andindustrial liquid waste discharges, and may include
 
 
runoff. Sewage systemscapable of handling stormwater are known as combined systems orcombined sewers. Suchsystems are usually avoided since they complicate and thereby reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment plants owing to their seasonality. The variability in flow also leads to oftenlarger than necessary, and subsequently more expensive, treatment facilities. In addition,heavy storms that contribute more flows than the treatment plant can handle mayoverwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow (called a combinedsewer overflow, or CSO, in the
 
United States). It is preferable to have a separate
 
stormdrainsystem for stormwater in areas that are developed with sewer systems.As rainfall runs over the surface of roofs and the ground, it may pick up variouscontaminants including
 
 
particles and other
 
 
 
organiccompounds, animal waste, and
 
 
and
 
grease. Some
 
 
require stormwater toreceive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examplesof treatment processes used for stormwater include sedimentation basins,
 
wetlands, buriedconcrete vaults with various kinds of filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids). The site where the raw wastewater is processed before it is discharged back to theenvironment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The order and types of mechanical, chemical and biological systems that comprise the wastewater treatment plantare typically the same for most developed countries:
Mechanical treatment
Influx(Influent)
Removal of large objects
Removal of sand and grit

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