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Chapter 10, Sections 2 & 3 Textbook Notes

Chapter 10, Sections 2 & 3 Textbook Notes

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Published by: Sonny An on Nov 28, 2012
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Sonny An
US History HonorsNovember 27th, 20121 |Page Chapter 10, Sections 2 & 3
Section 2
: Watching Europe’s War
.
 
May 7
th
 , 1915: Germany sinks British ship
Lusitania
.
o
 
128 Americans on board died.
 
 
Self-determination
: The right to choose the form of government and to control theirinternal affairs.
 
Porfirio Díaz
 , 30-
year ruler of Mexico: 90% of Mexico’s mines, railroads, and industry
 belonged to foreign investors.
o
 
1911: Díaz overthrown by peasants and middle-class Mexicans.
o
 
Francisco Madero
to replace Díaz, however, overthrown and killed by
Victoriano Huerta
in a bloody
coup
.
 
March 4
th
 , 1913:
President Wilson
takes office.
 
April 1914: Mexican officials arrest sailors from American naval vessel in
Tampico
.
o
 
Wilson sends in marines to port city of
Veracruz
.
 
Anti-American riots break out in Mexico and across Latin America.
 
Negative press coverage from Europe and even America.
o
 
Wilson backs off, allowing ABC powers
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile
tomediate.
 
1915:
Venustiano Carranza
 , backed by Wilson, succeeds Huerta.
o
 
Pancho Villa
: Rebel leader, kills 18 American mining engineers in Mexico.Crosses border and kills 17 Americans in Columbus, New Mexico.
 
Wilson sends in 15,000 troops under the command of
John J. Pershing
tofind and capture Villa. (Unsuccessful venture.)
 
 January 1917: Wilson withdraws forces from Mexico.
 
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
 , heir to Austro-Hungarian Empire, assassinated by aSerbian.
 
 
Alliances
: Unions between countries.
o
 
Triple Entente
: Britain, France, and Russia. (Allies.)
o
 
Central Powers
: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire.
 
 July 28
th
 , 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
o
 
Within a few days, Germany declares war on Russia and France.
 
Invades neutral Belgium.
 
 
Neutrality
: Impartiality in a dispute or war.
 
Sonny An
US History HonorsNovember 27th, 20122 |Page 
Prewar bias: By1917, Americanloans to Alliestotalled $2.25 billion. January 1917:Zimmermann'sproposal toMexico decoded by the British. January 31st,1917: Germanyannouncesunrestrictedsubmarinecampaign.
March 18th, 1917:Sinks Americansupply ship
Illinois
.
World War I.
 
August 4
th
 , 1914: Great Britain declares war on Germany.
o
 
1915: Italy joins WWI to aid the Triple Entente.
 
April 1915:
Second Battle of Ypres
: Germans introduce poison gas to the battlefield(deadlocked trenches).
 
 
Dogfights
: A close combat between military aircraft.
 
March 1917:
Russian Revolution
: Czar is overthrown.
o
 
November 1917:
Vladimir I. Lenin
begins peace talks with Germany.
 
Roughly 10 million soldiers and 20 million civilians dead by the end of WWI.
 
Emigration
: Migration from a place. (America, the melting pot of culture.)
 
1916:
Woodrow Wilson
reelected to presidency against
Charles Evans Hughes
.
 
April 2
nd
 , 1917: President Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany.
 
Sonny An
US History HonorsNovember 27th, 20123 |Page 
Section 3
: World War I: There and Here.
 
Fall 1918: Influenza and bonds sweep nation.
o
 
Illustrated by
Katherine Anne Porter
’s
Pale Horse, Pale Rider
.
o
 
57,000 American soldiers died from influenza.
 
53,500 died in battle.
 
Mobilization
: Act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency.
o
 
Secretary of the Treasury
William Gibbs McAdoo
: “A man who can’t lend his
government $1.25 per week at the rate of 4 percent interest is not entitled to be an
American citizen.”
 
 
Conscription
: Compulsory enrollment in military service.
o
 
 June 5
th
 , 1917: Official day of registration for draft as called by Secretary of War
Newton D. Baker
.
o
 
About 11,000 women volunteered as nurses, clerical workers, and telephoneoperators.
 
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(
NAACP
) demandedthat African Americans be allowed to become officers.
o
 
600 African Americans graduate from an officer-training program at
Fort DesMoines
.
 
Military did not give high ranks to them.
o
 
Integration with white French troops. (Tolerant.)
 
Doughboys
: Nickname for General John J. Pershing, traditionally a cake baked forsailors.
o
 
By 1917: About 200,000 troops came ashore in France, known as the
AmericanExpeditionary Force
(
A.E.F.
).
 
Lacked training, however, gained reputation for courage and “pep.”
 
 
March 3
rd
 , 1918: Russia signs a peace treaty with Germany.
 
1918: 1.4 million/2 million American soldiers took part in active combat.
o
 
William S. Sims
: U.S. naval forces commander of 50,000.
 
November 11st, 1918: Germany signs armistice, marking the end of WWI.
 
 
Propaganda
: A form of public information used to mold public opinion.
o
 
Secretary of the Treasury
McAdoo
for
Liberty Bonds
.
o
 
Herbert Hoover
for food conservation.
o
 
George Creel
: “The world’s greatest adventure in advertising.”
 
 
Women’s Council of Defense
to conserve food for the war effort.

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