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Table Of Contents

1.1 What is a circuit breaker?
1.2 Why do we need circuit breakers?
1.3 Different types of switching
1.4 Disconnecting and withdrawable circuit breakers
1.5 Circuit switcher
1.6 Environmental aspects
2.1 Historical development
2.2 Main components
2.2.1 Breaking unit
2.2.2 Support insulator
2.2.3 Operating mechanism
2.2.4 Support structure
2.3 Additional components
2.3.1 Grading capacitors
2.3.2 Preinsertion resistors
2.3.3 Cabinets for central control
2.4 SF6 Interrupters
2.4.1 SF6 gas
2.4.2 Principles of arc extinction
2.4.2.1 Thermal regime
2.4.2.2 Dielectric regime
2.4.3 Earlier interrupter designs
2.4.4 SF6 puffer circuit breakers
2.4.5 SF6 self-blast circuit breakers
2.4.6 Configuration of the moving contacts
2.5 Operating mechanisms
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Spring-operated mechanism
2.5.3 Motor Drive
2.5.4 Pneumatic-operated mechanism
2.5.5 Hydraulic-operated mechanism
2.5.6 Hydraulic spring-operated mechanism
2.5.7 Other types of operating mechanisms
3.1 Short-circuit currents
3.1.1 Standardized time constant and asymmetry
3.1.2 Peak withstand current
3.2 Terminal faults
3.2.1 Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) in single-phase networks
3.2.2 TRV in three-phase networks
3.3 Short-line faults
3.4 Initial Transient Recovery Voltage (ITRV)
3.5 Out-of-phase conditions
3.6 Switching of capacitive currents
3.6.1 De-energizing of capacitive loads
3.6.2 Recovery voltage
3.6.3 Energizing of capacitor banks
3.7 Inductive load switching
3.7.1 Switching of shunt reactors
3.7.1.1 Current chopping and resulting overvoltages
3.7.1.2 Reignitions
4.1.1.2 Static terminal load
4.1.1.3 Ice load
4.1.1.4 Wind load
4.1.2 Dynamic loads
4.1.2.1 Dynamic loads due to operation
4.1.2.2 Dynamic current loads
4.1.3 Seismic load
4.1.3.1 Measures to increase seismic withstand levels
4.2 Combination of loads
4.3 Influence of extreme ambient temperatures
4.4 Gas properties
4.4.1 Effect of ambient temperature
4.4.2 Moisture content in SF6 gas
4.5 Sound effects of circuit breaker operation
4.5.1 Standards
4.5.2 Sound level as function of distance
5.1 Thermal limits
5.1.1 Derating of rated current due to temperature
5.2 Temperature rise test
5.3 Temperature rise at current overload
5.4 Influence of site altitude
6.2.2 Lightning impulse
6.2.3 Chopped impulse
6.2.4 Switching impulse
6.3 Insulation levels
6.4 Dielectric tests on circuit breakers
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Combined voltage test
6.4.3 Other voltage tests
6.4.3.1 RIV (Radio Interference Voltage) tests
6.4.3.2 Partial discharge test
6.4.3.3 Pollution test
6.4.3.4 Tests on low-voltage circuits
6.5 Atmospheric correction factor
6.6 Installation at high altitudes
6.7 Environmental effects and insulator shapes
6.7.1 Creepage distance and pollution
6.7.2 Environmental classes according to IEC
6.7.3 Environmental classes according to IEEE
6.8 Clearances in air
6.9 Insulating material
7.1 Transmission line circuit breakers
7.1.1 Faults on overhead lines
7.1.2 Switching of no-load transmission lines
7.1.2.1 Voltage factor
7.1.2.2 Line charging current
7.1.2.3 Reclosing
7.1.2.4 Shunt compensated transmission lines
7.1.2.5 Series compensated transmission lines
7.1.3 Classification
7.2 Power transformer circuit breakers
7.2.1 Asymmetry and dc time constant
7.2.2 No-load switching conditions
7.2.3 Synchronization
7.2.4 Classification
7.3 Capacitor/filter circuit breakers
7.3.1 Recovery voltage and voltage factors
7.3.2 Inrush current
7.3.3 Rating and classification
7.4 Shunt reactor circuit breakers
7.4.1 Operating conditions
7.4.2 Reignitions
7.4.3 Elimination of reignitions
7.4.4 Shunt reactor switching tests
7.4.5 Classification
7.5 Bus couplers
7.6 Special applications
7.6.1 Railway applications
7.6.1.1 Railway applications with a power frequency less than 50 Hz
7.6.2 Series capacitor by-pass switches
7.6.3 HVDC filters
7.6.4 SVC (Static Var Compensator)
7.8 Controlled switching
8.1 Standards
8.1.1 IEC
8.1.1.1 Time definitions according to IEC
8.1.2 ANSI/IEEE
8.2 Circuit breaker testing
8.3 Type tests
8.3.1 Dielectric tests
8.3.2 Radio Interference Voltage (RIV) tests
8.3.3 Temperature rise tests
8.3.4 Measurement of the resistance of the main circuit
8.3.5 Short-time withstand current and peak withstand current tests
8.3.6 Mechanical and environmental tests
8.3.6.1 Mechanical operation test at ambient temperature
8.3.6.2 Low and high temperature tests/tightness tests
8.3.6.3 High temperature test
8.3.6.4 Humidity tests
8.3.6.5 Ice tests
8.3.6.6 Static terminal load test
8.3.7 Making and breaking tests
8.3.7.1 Preparation for tests
8.3.7.2 Single-phase/three-phase testing
8.3.7.3 Unit test/full pole test
8.3.7.4 Direct tests
8.3.7.5 Synthetic testing
8.3.7.6 Summary of test duties
8.3.7.7 Terminal fault
8.3.7.8 Short-line fault
8.3.7.9 Out-of-phase making and breaking tests
8.3.7.10 Capacitive current switching
8.5.4 SATS organization
9.1 Failure statistics
9.2 Electrical and mechanical life
9.3 Maintenance
9.4 Condition monitoring
9.5 Life Cycle Costs
9.6 Environmental aspects
Selection of circuit breakers
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Live Tank Circuit Breaker - Application Guide Ed1.1

Live Tank Circuit Breaker - Application Guide Ed1.1

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Published by Manit Dani

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Published by: Manit Dani on Nov 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/15/2013

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