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3994 Raid Whichone v112

3994 Raid Whichone v112

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Published by: الفتاة المسلمة on Nov 28, 2012
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12/04/2012

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STORAGE SOLUTIONSWHITE PAPER
Data is the most valuable asset ofany business today.Lost datameans lost business.Even ifyou backup regularly,you need afail-safewaytoensurethat your data is protected and can beaccessed without interruption in the event ofan online disk failure.Adding RAID to your storage configurations is one of the most cost-effective ways to maintain both data protectionand access.While a number ofcompanies offer RAID,not all RAIDimplementations are created equal.With over 24 years ofSCSIdevelopment experience,only Adaptec offers the most robustRAID data protection available today,based on a hardenedRAID code proven over years ofuse in demandingenvironments and resold by most ofthe top-tier computermanufacturers.To choose the RAID level that’s right for you,begin by considering the factors below.Each one ofthese factorsbecomes a trade-offfor another:Cost ofdisk storageData protection or data availability required (low,medium,high)Performance requirements (low,medium,high)Cost boils down to the trade-offbetween disk capacity andadded data availability or performance.For example,RAID1/10 and smalldisk counts ofRAID 6 are costly in terms of lost disk space (50%),but high in data availability.Performance also depends on the access pattern(random/sequential,read/write,long/short) and the numbersofusers.This white paper intends to give an overview on theperformance and availability ofvarious RAID levels in generaland maynot beaccuratein alluser scenarios.
RAID Level Descriptions:
RAID 0 (Striping):
Offers low cost and maximum performance,but offers no faulttolerance.A single disk failure results in TOTAL data loss.Businesses use RAID 0 mainlyfor tasks requiring fast access toalarge capacity oftemporary disk storage (such as video/audiopost-production,multimedia imaging,CAD,data logging,etc.)where in case ofa disk failure,the data can be easily reloadedwithout impacting the business.There are also no costdisadvantages as all storage is usable.RAID 0 usable capacity is100% as all available drives are used.
ABCDBFJNCGKODHLPAEIM
Logical DiskRAID 0 Disk Arra
Data Stripe
Reads or writes canoccursimultaneouslyonevery drive
Which RAID Level is Right for Me?
Introduction.....................................................................................1RAID Level Descriptions..................................................................1RAID 0 (Striping).......................................................................1RAID 1 (Mirroring).....................................................................2RAID 1E (Striped Mirror)...........................................................2RAID 5 (Striping with parity).....................................................2RAID 5EE (Hot Space).....................................................................3RAID 6 (Striping with dual parity).............................................3RAID 10 (Striped RAID 1 sets).................................................3RAID 50 (Striped RAID 5 sets).................................................4RAID 60 (Striped RAID 6 sets).................................................4RAIDLevel Comparison..................................................................5 About Adaptec RAID.......................................................................5
Contents
 
SERVER STORAGEWHITE PAPER
Which RAID Level is Right for Me?
RAID 1 (Mirroring):
Provides cost-effective,high fault tolerance for configurationswith two disk drives.RAID 1 refers to maintaining duplicatesets ofall data on separate disk drives.It also provides thehighest data availability since two complete copies ofallinformation are maintained.There must be two disks in theconfiguration and there is a cost disadvantage as the usablecapacity is halfthe number ofavailable disks.RAID 1 offersdata protection insurance for any environments whereabsolute data redundancy,availability and performance arekey,and cost per usable gigabyte ofcapacity is a secondary consideration.RAID 1 usable capacity is 50% ofthe available drives in theRAID set.
RAID 1E (Striped mirroring)
Combines data striping from RAID 0 with data mirroringfrom RAID 1.Data written in a stripe on one disk is mirroredtoastripe on the next drive in the array.The main advantageover RAID 1 is that RAID 1E arrays can be implemented usingan odd numberofdisks.RAID 1E usable capacity is 50% ofthe total available capacity ofall disk drives in the RAID set.
 Note:When using even numbers ofdisks it is always preferable to useRAID 10,which will allow multiple drive failures.With odd numbersofdisks,however,RAID 1E supports only one drive failure.
RAID 5 (Striping with parity):
Uses data striping in a technique designed to provide fault-tolerant data storage,but doesn’t require duplication ofdatalike RAID 1 and RAID 1E.Data is striped across all ofthedrives in the array,but for each stripe through the array (onestripe unit from each disk) one stripe unit is reserved to holdparitydata calculated from the other stripe units in the samestripe.Read performance is therefore very good,but there is apenalty for writes,since the parity data has to be recalculatedand writtenalong with the new data.To avoid a single drivebottleneck,the parity data for consecutive stripes is interleavedwith the data across all disks in the array.RAID 5 has been the standard in server environmentsrequiring fault tolerance.The RAID parity requires one disk drive per RAID set,so usable capacity will always be one disk driveless than the number ofavailable disks in theconfiguration ofavailable capacity — still better than RAID 1which has only a 50% usable capacity.RAID 5 requires a minimum ofthree disks and a maximum of16disks to be implemented.RAID 5 usable capacity is between 67%-94%,depending on the number ofdata drives in the RAID set.
ABCDADGParityBEParityJCParityHKParityFIL
Logical DiskRAID 5 Disk Array
 Writes require parity update.Data can be read fromeach disk independently.Adedicated disk is requiredforhotspares.Data Stripe
Hot Spare
ABCDACDFBAEDCBFE
Logical DiskRAID 1E Disk Array
Data is written to two diskssimultaneously,andallowsanodd number ofdisks.Read requests can besatisfied by data read fromeither disk or both disks.
ABCDABCDABCD
Logical DiskRAID 1 Disk Array
Data is written tobothdisks simultaneously.Read requests can besatisfied by data read fromeither disk or both disks.
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SERVER STORAGEWHITE PAPER
Which RAID Level is Right for Me?
RAID 5EE (Hot Space):
Provides the protection ofRAID 5 with higher I/Os per secondby utilizing one more drive,with data efficiently distributedacross the spare drive for improved I/O access.RAID 5EE distributes the hot-spare drive space over the N+1drives comprising the RAID-5 array plus standard hot-sparedrive.This means that in normal operating mode the hot spareis an active participant in the array rather than spinningunused.In a normal RAID 5 array adding a hot-spare drive toaRAID 5 array protects data by reducing the time spent in thecritical degraded state.However,this technique does not makemaximum use ofthe hot-spare drive because it sits idle until afailure occurs.Often many years can elapse before the hot-spare drive is ever used.For small RAID 5 arrays in particular,having an extra disk to read from can provide significantly better read performance.Forexample,going from a 4-drive RAID 5 array with a hotspare to a 5-drive RAID 5EE array will increase performanceby roughly 25%.One downside ofRAID 5EE is that the hot-spare drive cannotbeshared across multiple physical arrays as with standardRAID 5 plus hot-spare.This RAID 5 technique is more cost-efficient for multiple arrays because it allows a single hot-sparedrivetoprovide coverage for multiple physical arrays.Thisconfiguration reduces the cost ofusing a hot-spare drive,butthe downside is the inability to handle separate drive failureswithin different arrays.This RAID level can sustain a singledrive failure.RAID 5EE useable capacity is between 50% - 88%,dependingonthe number ofdata drives in the RAID set.RAID 5EErequires a minimum offour disks and a maximum of16 disksto be implemented.
RAID 6 (Striping with dual parity):
Data is striped across several physical drives and dual parity isused to store and recover data.It tolerates the failure oftwodrives in an array,providing better fault tolerance than RAID5.It also enables the use ofmore cost-effective,but lessreliable,ATA and SATA disks for business critical data.This RAID level is similar to RAID 5,but includes a secondparity scheme that is distributed across different drives andtherefore offers extremely high fault tolerance and drive-failuretolerance.RAID 6 can withstand a double disk failure.RAID 6 requires a minimum offour disks and a maximum of 16 disks to be implemented.Usable capacity is always 2 lessthan the number ofavailable disk drives in the RAID set.
 Note:With less expensive,but less reliable SATA disk drives in aconfiguration that employs RAID 6,it is possible to achieve ahigher level ofavailability than a Fibre Channel Array using RAID 5.This is because the second parity drive in the RAID 6 RAID set can withstand a second failure during a rebuild.In aRAID 5 set,the degraded state and/or the rebuilding time onto ahot spare is considered the window at which the RAID array ismost vulnerable to data loss.During this time,ifa second disk failure occurs,data is unrecoverable.With RAID 6 there are nowindows ofvulnerability as the second parity drive protectsagainst this.
RAID 10 (Striped RAID 1 sets):
Combines RAID 0 striping and RAID 1 mirroring.This levelprovides the improved performance ofstriping while stillproviding the redundancy ofmirroring.RAID 10 is the result offorming a RAID 0 array from two ormore RAID 1 arrays.This RAID level provides fault toleranceup toone disk ofeach sub-array may fail without causingloss ofdata.
ABCDEF
Logical DiskRAID 6 Disk Array
 Writes require twoparityupdates (on differentdrives) to survive two disk failures.Data can be read from eachdisk independently.Data Stripe
KLParityIJParityGHParityEFParityCDParityABParity
ABCD
Logical DiskRAID 5EE Disk Array
 Writes require parity update.Data can be read fromeach disk independently.Spares are distributed through the array, improvingperformance.Data Stripe
ParityFILSpareParityHKCSpareParityJBESpareParityADGSpare
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