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Some Specimen Proofs
A Inequalities and Square Roots
A.1 Absolute Value and the Triangle Inequality
A.2 Square Roots
A.3 Another Inequality
B Some Spoofs
C Proofs from Geometry
C.1 Pythagoras
C.2 The Curry Triangle
D From Calculus
E Prime Numbers and the Irrational
F Algebraic Formulas
F.1 Simple Summation Formulas
F.2 Properties of Factorial
A Logical Propositions, Connectives, and Quantiﬁers
A.1 Basic Logical Connectives
A.2 Open Statements and Quantiﬁers
A.3 Negating Quantiﬁed and Other Compound Statements
A.4 Context and Hypotheses
B Some Basic Types of Proofs
B.1 Elementary Propositions and And
B.2 Or
B.3 Implications and “For all ...” Statements
B.4 Equivalence
B.6 Existence and Uniqueness Proofs
B.7 Proofs by Induction
C Some Advice for Writing Proofs
D Proofs and Discovery
Sets and Functions
A Notation and Basic Concepts
B Basic Operations and Properties
C Product Sets
D The Power Set of a Set
E Relations
F Functions
G Cardinality of Sets
G.1 Finite Sets
G.2 Countable and Uncountable Sets
G.3 The Schroeder-Bernstein Theorem
H The Strange World at the Foundations of Mathematics
H.1 The Continuum Hypothesis
The Integers
A The Integers: Z
A.1 Axioms for The Integers
A.2 Consequences of the Well-Ordering Principle
B Greatest Common Divisors
B.1 The Euclidean Algorithm
C The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
D The Integers Mod m
E Axioms and Beyond: G¨odel Crashes the Party
Polynomials
A Preliminaries
B Q[x] and the Rational Root Theorem
C R[x] and Descartes’ Rule of Signs
D C[z] and The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
D.1 Some Properties of the Complex Numbers
D.2 The Fundamental Theorem
Appendix: Mathematical Words
Index
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Introduction to Proofs and the Mathemtical Vernacular(Day)

Introduction to Proofs and the Mathemtical Vernacular(Day)

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11/29/2012

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