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Table Of Contents

Some Specimen Proofs
A Inequalities and Square Roots
A.1 Absolute Value and the Triangle Inequality
A.2 Square Roots
A.3 Another Inequality
B Some Spoofs
C Proofs from Geometry
C.1 Pythagoras
C.2 The Curry Triangle
D From Calculus
E Prime Numbers and the Irrational
F Algebraic Formulas
F.1 Simple Summation Formulas
F.2 Properties of Factorial
A Logical Propositions, Connectives, and Quantifiers
A.1 Basic Logical Connectives
A.2 Open Statements and Quantifiers
A.3 Negating Quantified and Other Compound Statements
A.4 Context and Hypotheses
B Some Basic Types of Proofs
B.1 Elementary Propositions and And
B.2 Or
B.3 Implications and “For all ...” Statements
B.4 Equivalence
B.5 Proofs by Contradiction
B.6 Existence and Uniqueness Proofs
B.7 Proofs by Induction
C Some Advice for Writing Proofs
D Proofs and Discovery
Sets and Functions
A Notation and Basic Concepts
B Basic Operations and Properties
C Product Sets
D The Power Set of a Set
E Relations
F Functions
G Cardinality of Sets
G.1 Finite Sets
G.2 Countable and Uncountable Sets
G.3 The Schroeder-Bernstein Theorem
H The Strange World at the Foundations of Mathematics
H.1 The Continuum Hypothesis
H.2 Russell’s Paradox
The Integers
A The Integers: Z
A.1 Axioms for The Integers
A.2 Consequences of the Well-Ordering Principle
B Greatest Common Divisors
B.1 The Euclidean Algorithm
C The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
D The Integers Mod m
E Axioms and Beyond: G¨odel Crashes the Party
A Preliminaries
B Q[x] and the Rational Root Theorem
C R[x] and Descartes’ Rule of Signs
D C[z] and The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
D.1 Some Properties of the Complex Numbers
D.2 The Fundamental Theorem
Appendix: Mathematical Words
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Introduction to Proofs and the Mathemtical Vernacular(Day)

Introduction to Proofs and the Mathemtical Vernacular(Day)

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Published by Michael Dykes

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Published by: Michael Dykes on Nov 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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