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TECRP Literature Review 052507

TECRP Literature Review 052507

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Published by Glenn Robinson
The objective of this literature review is to discuss how environmental justice (EJ) analyses have been viewed and conducted by both practitioners and academics. By highlighting methods that have been applied in the context of transportation planning, we can justify the utility of some EJ analysis tools as well as highlight particular needs where there are dearths of examples. By reviewing both professional and academic literature we can combine case studies, empirical research, along with analytic methods. We will also balance the selected professional and academic literature so that practical as well as sophisticated tools are represented.
The objective of this literature review is to discuss how environmental justice (EJ) analyses have been viewed and conducted by both practitioners and academics. By highlighting methods that have been applied in the context of transportation planning, we can justify the utility of some EJ analysis tools as well as highlight particular needs where there are dearths of examples. By reviewing both professional and academic literature we can combine case studies, empirical research, along with analytic methods. We will also balance the selected professional and academic literature so that practical as well as sophisticated tools are represented.

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Published by: Glenn Robinson on Jan 29, 2009
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Task 1-2, Literature Review
Filling the Gap:Environmental Justice in Transportation Toolkit
Prepared for:Federal Transit AdministrationU.S Department of TransportationIn conjunction with:Cooperative Agreement MD-26-8001-00Transportation Equity Cooperative Research Program
5/23/2007
Lead Author:Glenn Robinson, MA., MM., Morgan State UniversityCo-Author: Rich Kuzmyak, Transportation ConsultantCo-Author: Tom Sanchez, Phd. Virginia TechContributor: Jackie Grimshaw, VP, Policy Transportation and Community Development, Center for Neighborhood TechnologyContributor: Tim Buckley, Phd., Ohio State University
Not For Distribution All Rights Reserved
 
Filling the Gap: Environmental Justice in Transportation Toolkit
i
OUTLINE
I.Introduction2II.Environmental Justice In Transportation Toolkit (EJTK) Framework3III.State of the Art5IV.Existing Research Studies and Technical Assistance Guides13V.Environmental Justice and Public Participation21VI.Environmental Justice and Human Health40VII.Environmental Justice and Accessibility45VIII.Planning Elements Required For Effective Environmental Justice Analysis48 
Tables
 Table 1: Coverage of Key Environmental Justice Elements in Source Studies 6 - 7Table 2: Summary of FHWA Case Studies 8Table 3: Desk Guide Highlights 17Table 4: Transportation Equity Planning Documents20Table 5: Levels of Public Participation23Table 6: EPA’s Hot Spot Exposure Program 44
Figures
Figure 1: Transportation Equity-Related Planning Activities 21
 
Filling the Gap: Environmental Justice in Transportation Toolkit
1
LITERATURE REVIEW
I.INTRODUCTION
The objective of this literature review is to discuss how environmental justice (EJ) analyses have been viewed and conducted by both practitioners and academics. By highlighting methods that have beenapplied in the context of transportation planning, we can justify the utility of some EJ analysis tools aswell as highlight particular needs where there are dearths of examples. By reviewing both professionaland academic literature we can combine case studies, empirical research, along with analytic methods.We will also balance the selected professional and academic literature so that practical as well assophisticated tools are represented. For instance, some types of analyses that either rely on voluminous or highly detailed data or involve extremely complicated computations may simply be too expensive toconduct by local public agencies. The tradeoffs between accuracy, sophistication, and cost likely explainwhy some public transportation planning agencies conduct few or relatively simplistic EJ analysistechniques. Other explanations include the fact that some organizations do not make EJ or equity analysis priorities within their planning processes. This point, however, is beyond the scope of this literaturereview.From our review of the literature we identified several important dimensions of EJ analysistechniques. First is the unit of analysis (or aggregation) of the data used. Because so many analyses relyon secondary data sources, the unit of analysis is often dictated by data availability. Census data are themost commonly used because they are relatively inexpensive, provide a common spatial or geographicunit of analysis, and often provide temporal units of analysis if change over time dynamics is an importantelement of the analysis. In other cases the individual or household may be the unit of concern, whichoften means that the spatial or geographic reference is suppressed to provide confidentiality. In thesecases spatial patterns cannot be easily detected or included in analyses, but this may be remedied by usingother supplementary data sources if necessary.A second important dimension of EJ analyses are analytical methods. These can range fromspatial analysis with geographic information systems (GIS), statistical analysis, and qualitative analysismethods. Qualitative analysis methods are probably the least used in EJ analysis for transportation because so much emphasis is placed on empirical measurement and quantifiable indices. Qualitativemethods, however, can be very valuable in assessing aspects such as customer satisfaction, preferences,and other types of public input such as visioning and scenario building. Both quantitative and qualitativemethods are represented in the academic literature and draw on a range of disciplines such as geography,economics, sociology, psychology, and anthropology.A third important dimension of analysis is substantive focus. For EJ analysis in transportationthese can include health, safety, and environment as well as transportation service and economiccharacteristics. Several reviews of planning documents have found that there is little or no consistency inthe types of substantive focus included in EJ or equity analyses. The lack of consistency can also be seenin terms of the unit of analysis and analytical methods employed by planners and are due to the lack of guidance provided by the state and federal government.To make clear our purpose, this review paper summarizes our findings from what we believe to be the key studies and reports that have been produced to date on environmental justice in transportation.In particular, we have reviewed EJ case studies that have been published by FHWA or FTA or that have

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