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Table Of Contents

Biomechanics of Sports Injury
Introduction
Causes of injury and the properties of materials
1.1 Causes of injury
1.2 Biological and other materials
1.3.1 STRESS AND STRAIN
1.3 Response of a material to load
1.3.2 ELASTIC MODULUS AND RELATED PROPERTIES
1.3.3 PLASTICITY AND STRAIN ENERGY
1.3.4 TOUGHNESS AND CRACK PREVENTION
1.3.5 HARDNESS
1.3.7 FATIGUE FAILURE
1.3.8 NON-HOMOGENEITY, ANISOTROPY AND VISCOELASTICITY
1.3.9 STRESS CONCENTRATION
1.4.1 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
1.4.2 BONE: LOADING AND BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES
1.5.1 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION
1.5.2 BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES
1.5 Cartilage
1.6.1 MUSCLE ELASTICITY AND CONTRACTILITY
1.6.2 MAXIMUM FORCE AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION
1.6.3 MECHANICAL STIFFNESS
1.6.4 THE STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE
1.7 Ligament and tendon properties
1.8.1 IMMOBILISATION AND DISUSE
1.8.2 AGE AND SEX
1.8.3 EXERCISE AND TRAINING
1.8.4 WARM-UP
1.10 Exercises
1.11 References
1.12 Further reading
Injuries in sport: how the body behaves under load
2.2.1 TYPE OF FRACTURE
2.2 Bone injuries
2.2.2 MAGNITUDE OF LOAD
2.2.3 LOAD RATE
2.4.2 THE KNEE
2.4.3 THE ANKLE AND FOOT
2.4.4 THE WRIST AND HAND
2.4.5 THE ELBOW
2.4.6 THE SHOULDER
2.4.7 THE HEAD, BACK AND NECK
2.5.1 SEX, AGE AND GROWTH
2.5 Genetic factors in sports injury
2.5.2 BONY ALIGNMENT
2.8 Exercises
2.9 References
3.1.3 SPECIFIC SPORTS SURFACES
3.1.4 BIOMECHANICAL ASSESSMENT OF SURFACES
3.1.5 INJURY ASPECTS OF SPORTS SURFACES
3.2.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 Footwear: biomechanics and injury aspects
3.2.2 BIOMECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS OF A RUNNING SHOE
3.2.3 THE STRUCTURE OF A RUNNING SHOE
3.2.4 FOOTWEAR AND INJURY
3.2.5 IMPACT AND THE RUNNING SHOE
3.2.6 RUNNING SHOES AND REARFOOT CONTROL
3.3.1 THE HEAD AND NECK
3.3.2 THE UPPER EXTREMITY
3.3.3 THE LOWER EXTREMITY
3.3.4 ALPINE SKIING: RELEASE BINDINGS
3.4.1 INTRODUCTION
3.4.2 THE HEAD AND TRUNK
3.4.3 THE UPPER EXTREMITY
3.4.4 THE LOWER EXTREMITY
3.6 Exercises
3.7 References
3.8 Further reading
Appendix 3.1 Artificial surfaces
Calculating the loads
4.2 Forces acting on a body segment in two dimensions
4.2.3 ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE ABOVE MODELS
4.3 Determination of muscle forces from inverse dynamics
4.3.2 INVERSE OPTIMISATION
4.3.3 USE OF EMC TO ESTIMATE MUSCLE FORCE
4.4 Determination of ligament and bone forces
4.5.1 PATELLAR LIGAMENT RUPTURE
4.5.2 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
4.7 Exercises
4.8 References
4.9 Further reading
Biomechanical Improvement of Sports Performance
Aspects of biomechanical analysis of sports performance
5.1.1 HOW IS MOVEMENT CONTROLLED?
5.1.2 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT
5.2.1 UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES
5.2.2 PRINCIPLES OF PARTIAL GENERALITY
5.3 Temporal and phase analysis
5.3.1 PHASE ANALYSIS OF BALLISTIC MOVEMENTS
5.3.2 PHASE ANALYSIS OF RUNNING
5.3.3 PHASE ANALYSIS OF OTHER ACTIVITIES
5.3.4 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
5.4.1 AN APPROACH TO KINESIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
5.4 Kinesiological analysis of sports movements
5.4.2 A FORMALISED KINESIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
5.4.3 THE ANALYSIS CHART
5.4.4 EXAMPLES
5.5.1 WHAT MUSCLES REALLY DO
5.5 Some limitations to kinesiological analysis
5.5.2 OPEN AND CLOSED KINETIC CHAINS
5.7 Exercises
5.8 References
5.9 Further reading
Biomechanical optimisation of sports techniques
6.3.1 TYPES OF STATISTICAL MODEL
6.3.2 LIMITATIONS OF STATISTICAL MODELLING
6.3.3 THEORY-BASED STATISTICAL MODELLING
6.3.4 HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF A VERTICAL JUMP
6.4.1 SIMULATION
6.4.2 OPTIMISATION
6.4.3 CONCLUSIONS—FUTURE TRENDS
6.6 Exercises
6.7 References
6.8 Further reading
Mathematical models of sports motions
7.2.1 THE JAVELIN FLIGHT MODEL
7.2.2 SIMULATION
7.2.3 OPTIMISATION
7.2.4 A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
7.2.5 SIMULATION EVALUATION
7.3.1 INTRODUCTION
7.3 Simple models of the sports performer
7.3.2 THE THROWER MODEL
7.3.3 SIMULATION, OPTIMISATION AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
7.3.4 SIMULATION EVALUATION
7.3.5 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
7.4.1 INTRODUCTION
7.4 More complex models of the sports performer
7.4.2 LINKED SEGMENT MODELS OF AERIAL MOVEMENT
7.4.3 HANAVAN’S HUMAN BODY MODEL
7.4.4 HATZE’S ANTHROPOMETRIC MODEL
7.4.6 CONCLUSIONS
7.5.1 INTRODUCTION
7.5.2 THE COMPUTED TORQUE APPROACH
7.5.3 MUSCLE MODELS
7.5.4 A MORE COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
7.5.6 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
7.7 Exercises
7.8 References
7.9 Further reading
Feedback of results to improve performance
8.1 The importance of feedback
8.2.1 LIVE DEMONSTRATIONS
8.2.2 SERIAL RECORDINGS
8.2.3 PARALLEL REPRESENTATIONS
8.2.4 TEXTBOOK TECHNIQUE
8.2.5 GRAPHICAL (DIAGRAMMATIC) MODELS
8.2.8 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
8.3 The role of technique training
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Sports Biomechanics

Sports Biomechanics

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Published by Takahito Kamimura

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Published by: Takahito Kamimura on Nov 29, 2012
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06/17/2013

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