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Modelling Double Skin Facades

Modelling Double Skin Facades

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Published by eatonrob
A thesis submitted for the Degree:
MSc Energy Systems & the Environment
A thesis submitted for the Degree:
MSc Energy Systems & the Environment

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Published by: eatonrob on Nov 29, 2012
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Modelling Double-Skin Facades
 
Allan Dickson (B.Eng)
 A thesis submitted for the Degree:MSc Energy Systems & the EnvironmentDepartment of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Strathclyde, Glasgow UK
 
 
0Contents
 
Modelling Double-Skin Facades -1- Allan Dickson
1
 
ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................4
 
2
 
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................6
 
2.1
 
H
ISTORY OF THE
D
OUBLE
-
SKIN FACADE
........................................................................................6
 
2.2
 
D
EFINITION OF THE MODERN DOUBLE
-
SKIN FACADE
.......................................................................8
 
2.3
 
U
SEFUL CLASSIFICATION OF FACADE CONFIGURATIONS
- B
ELGIAN
B
UILDING
R
ESEARCH
I
NSTITUTE
S
TUDY
.....................................................................................................................................................9
 
2.3.1
 
Choosing appropriate classifications to model – investigation strategy...........................12 
 
3
 
MODELLING DOUBLE-SKIN FACADES.......................................................................................13
 
3.1
 
E
NERGY FLOWPATHS
..................................................................................................................13
 
3.2
 
ESP-
R
(B
UILDING
S
IMULATION
S
OFTWARE
)................................................................................14
 
3.3
 
 A
IRFLOW MODELLING
(N
ODAL NETWORK
& CFD)........................................................................15
 
3.4
 
C
ONVECTION IN THE
D
OUBLE
-S
KIN
F
 ACADE
................................................................................16
 
3.4.1
 
Enclosed cavity (free-convection)......................................................................................17 
 
3.4.2 
 
Ventilated open cavities.....................................................................................................19 
 
3.4.3 
 
Closing Remarks on Convection in Double-skin Facades................................................20 
 
3.4.4 
 
The role of CFD..................................................................................................................21
 
4
 
MODELLING APPROACH..............................................................................................................23
 
4.1
 
I
NTRODUCTION
............................................................................................................................23
 
4.2
 
O
VERVIEW OF MODELS USED IN INVESTIGATION
...........................................................................23
 
4.2.1
 
General modelling considerations.....................................................................................25 
 
5
 
AIR-FLOW WINDOW (DOUBLE-SKIN FACADE WITH NO CAVITY BLIND)..............................26
 
5.1
 
C
 AVITY
C
LOSED
..........................................................................................................................27
 
5.2
 
E
XTERNAL FACADE
O
PEN
............................................................................................................31
 
5.3
 
I
NTERNAL
& E
XTERNAL FACADE
O
PEN
........................................................................................37
 
5.4
 
C
ONTROLLING ALL THREE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS
:.................................................................38
 
5.5
 
P
ERFORMANCE OF
 A
IRFLOW
-W
INDOW
........................................................................................41
 
6
 
DOUBLE-SKIN FACADES WITH ROLLER-BLIND SHADING.....................................................44
 
6.1
 
P
ILOT
M
ODEL
- S
TRATEGY
..........................................................................................................44
 
6.2
 
I
NSTABILITY ISSUES WITH THE PILOT MODEL
................................................................................45
 
6.2.1
 
Time-step control relaxation..............................................................................................46 
 
 
0Contents
 
Modelling Double-Skin Facades -2- Allan Dickson
6.2.2 
 
A simplified airflow model..................................................................................................47 
 
6.3
 
B
LIND POSITION ABSTRACTION
....................................................................................................48
 
6.4
 
C
 AVITY
T
EMPERATURES
..............................................................................................................53
 
6.5
 
B
LIND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
&
FACADE PERFORMANCE
.............................................................54
 
6.5.1
 
Solar absorptivity & emissivity...........................................................................................55 
 
6.6
 
M
ULTI
-
STOREY FACADES
-
DISCRETISATION OF CAVITY
................................................................57
 
6.6.1
 
The effect of fictitious surfaces..........................................................................................60 
 
6.7
 
 A
IR
-
FLOW NETWORK
 –
DISCHARGE CO
-
EFFICIENT SENSITIVITY
....................................................62
 
6.8
 
C
ONTROL OF DOUBLE
-
SKIN FACADE WITH ROLLER BLIND
.............................................................63
 
6.8.1
 
The effect of large fictitious divisions.................................................................................63 
 
6.8.2 
 
Conclusions on fictitious surface utilisation.......................................................................67 
 
6.8.3 
 
Example of shading control operation...............................................................................68 
 
7
 
DOUBLE-SKIN FACADES WITH VENETIAN BLINDS..................................................................72
 
7.1
 
S
OLAR MODEL ISSUES
.................................................................................................................72
 
7.1.1
 
ESP-r solar model..............................................................................................................73 
 
7.2
 
M
ETHODS OF MODELLING
V
ENETIAN SLATS
.................................................................................74
 
7.3
 
S
 AW
-
TOOTH
V
ENETIAN MODEL INVESTIGATION
............................................................................75
 
7.3.1
 
Testing the model (insolation)............................................................................................77 
 
7.3.2 
 
Further testing in complete simulations.............................................................................81
 
7.3.3 
 
Significance of saw-tooth insolation results......................................................................82 
 
7.3.4 
 
Long-wave radiation exchange in Sawtooth model..........................................................84 
 
7.3.5 
 
Convection in Sawtooth model..........................................................................................87 
 
7.4
 
C
ONCLUSIONS FROM SAW
-
TOOTH MODEL
....................................................................................88
 
7.5
 
V
ENETIAN MODELLING
- T
HE IDEAL SIMULATION PROGRAM
..........................................................90
 
8
 
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................................................92
 
8.1
 
I
NITIAL GEOMETRICAL CONSIDERATIONS
......................................................................................92
 
8.2
 
M
ODELLING
P
RE
-
REQUISITES
......................................................................................................93
 
8.2.1
 
Insolation distribution.........................................................................................................93 
 
8.2.2 
 
Longwave radiation............................................................................................................93 
 
8.3
 
 A
IRFLOW
-
WINDOW MODELLING
(
DOUBLE
-
FACADES WITHOUT SHADING
).......................................93
 
8.4
 
D
OUBLE
-
SKIN FACADES WITH ROLLER BLINDS
..............................................................................96
 
8.4.1
 
Ventilation..........................................................................................................................96 
 

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