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Traffic Accident InvestigationText

# Traffic Accident InvestigationText

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07/02/2013

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Unit 38
TrafficAccidentInvestigation
BTEC Applied Science (Forensics)
Steve Bishop
City of Bristol College, November 2012
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INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 3

Physical evidence at a traffic collision .................................................................................. 3

Traffic collision formulae and variables ................................................................................ 5

Traffic accident definitions ................................................................................................... 7

Traffic accident statistics ...................................................................................................... 7

THE MAJOR FACTORS THAT CAUSE ACCIDENTS AND INJURY ...................................... 8

Causes of road traffic accidents ........................................................................................... 9

Costs of road traffic accidents .............................................................................................. 9

Tyres .................................................................................................................................. 11

Seat belts ........................................................................................................................... 12

Air Bags, Seat Belts and Crumple Zones .......................................................................... 14

SCIENCE IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS ............................................ 17

Newton's Three Laws of Motion ......................................................................................... 18

Energy, momentum and driving ......................................................................................... 20

Momentum and collisions .................................................................................................. 24

Coefficient of friction .......................................................................................................... 26

Friction practice questions ................................................................................................. 28

Naismith’s rule ................................................................................................................... 31

Stopping distance .............................................................................................................. 32

Reaction times ................................................................................................................... 35

Determining speed from tyre marks ................................................................................... 37

Skidding ............................................................................................................................. 39

Calculating the speed of a car at the start of a skid ........................................................... 40

Pedestrian throw ................................................................................................................ 42

Other ways of determining a vehicle’s velocity .................................................................. 45

Speed Estimate From Crush .............................................................................................. 46

Converting mph into m/s .................................................................................................... 47

How to solve projectile questions ....................................................................................... 49

Summary For Solving Projectile Problems ......................................................................... 50

Projectile questions ............................................................................................................ 53

LEGISLATION AND ROAD TRAFFIC INVESTIGATIONS .................................................... 57

Description of law / regulation / event etc. ......................................................................... 59

Photographing the scene of a road traffic accident and/or a vehicle ................................. 66

Traffic collision scenario 1 .................................................................................................. 67

Collision Scenario 2 ........................................................................................................... 69

Collision Investigation Scenario 3– Motorway Collision ..................................................... 70

Unit%38%%%2%
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1 Know the major factors that cause road traffic accidents and injury2 Know how science is used in the road traffic accident investigation process3 Be able to investigate a simulated crash scene4 Know which legislation applies to road traffic accident investigations.
Assessment and grading criteriaPass Merit DistinctionP1
describe the major factorsthat cause road trafficaccidents
M1
assess the relationshipbetween the major causalfactors in road trafficaccidents
D1
evaluate the relativeimportance of the variousfactors as the cause of roadtraffic accidents
P2
describe how science isused in the investigation ofroad traffic accidents
M2
explain the scientificfactors associated with roadtraffic accidents
D2
evaluate the relationshipbetween scientific factorsin road traffic accidentinvestigations
P3
carry out an investigationon a simulated crash sceneusing appropriate techniques
M3
explain the collection,analysis and use of evidencefrom a simulated accidentinvestigation
D3
evaluate the evidencecollected from a simulatedaccident investigation
P4
identify the legislationthat applies to road trafficaccidents
M4
comment on theeffectiveness of thelegislation that applies toroad traffic accidents.
D4