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SAS for Windows Begining Tutorial

SAS for Windows Begining Tutorial



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Published by: iksingh05 on Jan 29, 2009
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Page No.1
is produced by the SAS Institute in Cary, NC. It is the most powerful and comprehensive statisticssoftware available. We should avoid calling SAS a "program," since we write "programs" in SAS. But itis also not appropriate to refer to SAS as a "language" like C++, Fortran, etc. SAS actually containsseveral computer languages within it. Even "application" doesn't seem to fully describe SAS, so maybewe should just use the term SAS gives itself at the top of its output, "The SAS System."In 1976 the SAS Institute came out with its first software, a mainframe-based statistical analysissoftware package. Since then, SAS has enjoyed phenomenal growth. Its software is available for allthe major platforms, and has grown beyond statistics to a variety of data management and businessapplications. To read more about SAS, see their website atwww.sas.com. A history timeline is givenhere.SAS is also a community. Users groups (SUGI,NDSUG,RRVSUG) provide opportunities to interact with other SAS enthusiasts, hold conferences and publish articles about SAS programming techniques.There is even an annual SAS ballot, in which users can vote for the changes and enhancements theywould like to see SAS work on.
is a WindowsGUIfor running SAS. When you open the program, you will notice threewindows (probably overlapping) called “Editor,” “Log,” and “Output.” An example appears below. Thewindows have been arranged so you can see them all.The editor window is used to write programs. Text output will appear in the output window, and thelog window will contain error messages and other program execution information. The typical processis to type a program in the editor, then
it (running man icon) and look at your log and outputresults. After a program has been submitted, it remains in the editor, so you can make modificationsand submit it again.You can save your programs and open previously saved programs from the file menu. However, the"Save" command will apply to the
(top) window. You can save editor, log, or output files,accordingly. An extension of .sas, .log, or .lst (respectively) will be added automatically unless yousupply some other extension. (Using .txt may be helpful if you intend to open the file with Notepad or
Page No.2
a word processor, but most of the time it is best to stick with SAS's defaults.) There is one little catchyou should remember: In order to open a saved program, an editor window must be active when youselect "Open" from the file menu. If you have closed your editor window, you must first open a newone by selecting "Enhanced Editor" from the "View" menu, then proceed to the "File-->Open" dialog..If you have font problems (incorrect characters) when you open an output file in a word processor, trychanging the font to "SAS Monospace." This should work if you are on a computer with SAS installed.If SAS is not installed, you may not be able to get all of the characters correct, but any monospacefont, like Courier, will straighten out most of the formatting.Take a look at the program statements in the editor window. Notice that each line ends with a
. SAS uses semicolons to define the end of a statement. It doesn't matter how the text isarranged, whether there are extra spaces, indentions, extra lines, multiple statements on a line, orstatements split across lines. Such formatting can, and
be used to enhance readability
for humans
, but to SAS all that matters is where the semicolons are.
Enterprise Guide
is a new environment for running SAS. Although the same programs work andproduce similar results, there are some differences in the appearance and behavior of the interface. If you purchase the "SAS Learning Edition," this is the interface that will be presented after it is installed.An example appears below. In Enterprise Guide, your work is organized into projects, which appear ina collapsible tree structure on the left. The three windows mentioned above do not openautomatically. In order to type in a program, you open a
window which replaces the editor.Output windows open as needed when programs run, but not necessarily automatically. Output, log,and code windows (also datasets) can be opened by double-clicking icons in the project tree. Thecontents do not accumulate in the log and output windows as they do in PC SAS. When you submit aprogram, you have the choice of overwriting previous output or starting a new node in the projecttree. This keeps your results more organized. Note, the "running man" icon that is used for "submit"in the old version is replaced by a sheet of paper with a down-arrow beside it.You can use the regular interface described under "PC SAS" with Learning Edition, but you have to findthe sas.exe file in the program files directory. Make a shortcut to this file and place it on your desktopto use for starting SAS.
When you need more information about making SAS do what you want, there are several sources youcan access. The first is the "Help" facility installed on your computer and found at the right end of themenu bar. Unfortunately, because SAS is a huge and powerful product, the help can be a challenge tonavigate. The appearance and content of your help menu may vary depending on the version of SASyou are working with. The examples here use version 9.1.3. Under "Help," select "SAS Help andDocumentation." Then you should see a window like this:
Page No.3
Click on the plus sign by SAS Products and the tree opens like this:There is an important lesson right here in looking at this list in help. SAS is not just one program. It isa system of interconnected modules ("products"). In some ways it is like Microsoft Office, which has anumber of components like Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc. The list you see under "SAS Products" is not

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