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giao trinh mach dien tu - chuong 4

giao trinh mach dien tu - chuong 4

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Published by HocLieuMo

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Published by: HocLieuMo on Jan 30, 2009
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02/01/2013

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Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4:\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a n\u1ed9i tr\u1edf ngu\u1ed3n v\u00e0 t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf t\u1ea3i
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4
\u1ea2NH H\u01af\u1edeNG C\u1ee6AN\u1ed8I TR\u1edeNGU\u1ed2N T\u00cdN HI\u1ec6U (RS) V\u00c0
T\u1ed4NG TR\u1ede T\u1ea2I (RL) L\u00caN M\u1ea0CH KHU\u1ebeCH \u00d0\u1ea0I

Trong c\u00e1c ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc, ch\u00fang ta\u0111\u00e3 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch v\u00e0 t\u00ednh to\u00e1n c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ch khu\u1ebfch\u0111\u1ea1i d\u00f9ng BJT v\u00e0 FET khi kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 t\u1ea3i v\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem nh\u01b0 l\u00fd t\u01b0\u1edfng (kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 n\u1ed9i tr\u1edf). Th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, ngu\u1ed3n t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 n\u1ed9i tr\u1edf RS v\u00e0 m\u1ea1ch c\u00f3 t\u1ea3i RL. N\u1ed9i tr\u1edf RS v\u00e0 t\u1ea3i RL nh\u01b0 v\u1eady s\u1ebd l\u00e0m thay\u0111\u1ed5i c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ch nh\u01b0 t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf v\u00e0o, t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf ra,

\u0111\u1ed9l\u1ee3i \u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebfv\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9l\u1ee3i d\u00f2ng \u0111i\u1ec7n. N\u1ed9i dung c\u1ee7a ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y l\u00e0 kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a
RS v\u00e0 RL l\u00ean c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1.
4.1 H\u1ec6 TH\u1ed0NG 2 C\u1ed4NG (two-port systems)
Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng xem BJT v\u00e0 FET nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng 2 c\u1ed5ng (hay t\u1ee9 c\u1ef1c) nh\u01b0 h\u00ecnh 4.1

Trong\u0111\u00f3 vi, ii, Zi l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t l\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf (t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u), d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n v\u00e0 t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf c\u1ee7a ng\u00f5 v\u00e0o. v0, i0, Z0 l\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf, d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf c\u1ee7a ng\u00f5 ra. AVNL, AINL l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf v\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng. To\u00e0n b\u1ed9 c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a khi ng\u00f5 ra kh\u00f4ng m\u1eafc t\u1ea3i v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf ngu\u1ed3n RS.

\u00c1p d\u1ee5ng\u0111\u1ecbnh l\u00fd Thevenin\u1edf hai c\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a ng\u00f5 ra, ta c\u00f3:
Zth=Z0=R0
Ngu\u1ed3n\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf Thevenin Eth l\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf m\u1ea1ch h\u1edf gi\u1eefa 2\u0111\u1ea7u ng\u00f5 ra,\u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 v0. V\u1eady:
N\u00ean Eth=AVNL.vi
Ta c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 d\u00f9ng Ri=Zi=vi/ii\u0111\u1ec3 bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n m\u1ea1ch ng\u00f5 v\u00e0o v\u00e0 d\u00f9ng ngu\u1ed3n Thevenin
Eth=AVNL.Vi v\u00e0 Z0=R0 \u0111\u1ec3bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n ng\u1ecf ra c\u1ee7ah\u1ec7th\u1ed1ng 2 c\u1ed5ng.
Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
IV-1
M\u1ea1ch\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4:\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a n\u1ed9i tr\u1edf ngu\u1ed3n v\u00e0 t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf t\u1ea3i
\u00d0\u1ec3 th\u1eed l\u1ea1i m\u1ea1ch t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y, ta th\u1eed t\u00ecm Z0 v\u00e0 AVNL. \u00d0\u1ec3 t\u00ecm Z0, ta n\u1ed1i t\u1eaft ng\u00f5
v\u00e0o t\u1ee9c vi=0v, t\u1eeb\u0111\u00f3 AVNL.vi=0v v\u00e0 t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1edbi m\u1ea1ch n\u1ed1i t\u1eaft, do\u0111\u00f3 Z0=R0nh\u01b0\u0111\u00e3
\u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a ph\u00eda tr\u00ean. S\u1ef1v\u1eafng m\u1eb7t c\u1ee7a t\u1ea3i s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0a \u0111\u1ebfn i0=0 v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf gi\u1ea3m qua R0l\u00e0
VR0=0. Do\u0111\u00f3\u1edf ng\u00f5 ra h\u1edf ch\u00ednh b\u1eb1ng ngu\u1ed3n AVNL.vi.
Th\u00ed d\u1ee5: Cho m\u1ea1ch ph\u00e2n c\u1ef1c c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u01b0 h\u00ecnh 4.3. H\u00e3y v\u1ebd m\u1ea1ch t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng 2
c\u1ed5ng.
Gi\u1ea3i:
Ph\u00e2n gi\u1ea3i m\u1ea1ch n\u00e0y ta t\u00ecm\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c: Zi=1.07k\u03a9; Z0=3k\u03a9; AVNL=-280.11 (xem l\u1ea1i
ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 2)
D\u00f9ng c\u00e1c d\u1eef ki\u1ec7n n\u00e0y ta v\u1ebd l\u1ea1i m\u1ea1ch t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng 2 c\u1ed5ng nh\u01b0 h\u00ecnh 4.4.

D\u1ea5u tr\u1eeb trong ngu\u1ed3n\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 ngu\u1ed3n\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf th\u1eadt s\u1ef1 ng\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1edbi ngu\u1ed3n\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ecbnh tr\u00ean h\u00ecnh v\u1ebd. N\u00f3 c\u0169ng cho th\u1ea5y\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ec7ch pha 1800 gi\u1eefa\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf ng\u00f5 v\u00e0o v\u00e0 ng\u00f5 ra.

Trong th\u00ed d\u1ee5 tr\u00ean,\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf RC=3k\u03a9 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o\u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf kh\u00f4ng t\u1ea3i. S\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch trong ch\u01b0\u01a1ng n\u00e0y s\u1ebd xem c\u00e1c\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf ph\u00e2n c\u1ef1c l\u00e0 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n c\u1ee7a\u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i kh\u00f4ng t\u1ea3i, t\u1ea3i RL s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i v\u00e0o c\u00e1c c\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a ng\u00f5 ra.

4.2 HI\u1ec6U\u1ee8NG C\u1ee6A T\u1ed4NG TR\u1ede T\u1ea2I RL
Ph\u1ea7n n\u00e0y, ta xem\u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf t\u1ea3i RL\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi ki\u1ec3u m\u1ea9u 2 c\u1ed5ng. (xem
h\u00ecnh 4.5)\u00c1p d\u1ee5ng c\u00f4ng th\u1ee9c c\u1ea7u chia\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf\u1edf m\u1ea1ch ng\u00f5 ra ta c\u00f3:
Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
IV-2
M\u1ea1ch\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4:\u1ea2nh h\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a n\u1ed9i tr\u1edf ngu\u1ed3n v\u00e0 t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf t\u1ea3i
Tuy Ri thay\u0111\u1ed5i t\u00f9y theo d\u1ea1ng m\u1ea1ch, nh\u01b0ng d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n ng\u00f5 v\u00e0o lu\u00f4n lu\u00f4n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e1c
\u0111\u1ecbnh b\u1edfi:
\u00d0\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n nh\u01b0 v\u1eady c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u00ecm\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1eeb \u0111\u1ed9 l\u1ee3i\u0111i\u1ec7n th\u1ebf, t\u1ed5ng tr\u1edf v\u00e0o v\u00e0
\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edft\u1ea3i.
\u00d0\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng l\u1ea5y\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ed9ng: (xoay chi\u1ec1u)
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem nh\u01b0n\u1ed1i t\u1eaft v\u00e0 t\u1ea3i c\u1ee7a m\u1ea1ch \u0111i\u1ec7n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xem l\u00e0 RL v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf c\u1ef1c thu RCm\u1eafc
song song v\u1edbi nhau. T\u00e1c d\u1ee5ng c\u1ee7a\u0111i\u1ec7n tr\u1edf t\u1ea3i RL l\u00e0m cho\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng l\u1ea5y\u0111i\u1ec7n\u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00f3
d\u1ed1c\u0111\u1ee9ng h\u01a1n d\u00f2ng\u0111i\u1ec7n l\u1ea5y\u0111i\u1ec7n t\u0129nh. \u00d0i\u1ec3m ch\u00fa \u00fd quan tr\u1ecdng l\u00e0 c\u1ea3 2\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1eb3ng n\u00e0y
\u0111\u1ec1u qua c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t \u0111i\u1ec3m Q.
Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0103n T\u00e1m
IV-3
M\u1ea1ch\u0110i\u1ec7n T\u1eed

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