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Kei Koreaseconomy 10 Kwonyulparksukyung

Kei Koreaseconomy 10 Kwonyulparksukyung

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Published by: Korea Economic Institute (KEI) on Nov 30, 2012
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KOREA’S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - 63
KOREAN PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT DEVELOPMENT AID
By Kwon Yul and Park Sukyung
 Abstract
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carrying out reforms to improve its development aid system. This article provides recent trends of public opinion inKorea on issues of aid and development cooperation by presenting the survey results. It introduces the background of 
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support, awareness, motives for aid giving, priorities in development aid, as well as the assessment of the contribution of Korea’s
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improve the effectiveness of development cooperation and to convince its citizenry to pursue its ambitious aid policy.
 
64 - KOREA’S ECONOMY 2012
Introduction
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DAC member is short, but this new donor country has been proactive in setting a foundation for development cooperationsince it accession to the DAC in November 2009. Followed by
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-national Development Cooperation Act was enacted in early
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October 2010.Despite the achievements and progress it made, Korea stillhas a long way to go in order to improve the quantity andquality of its aid. Korea pledged to the international develop-
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GNI ratio of 0.25 percent by 2015, which requires doublingof the current level of ODA budget. Besides this challenge,Korea has been facing several aid effectiveness issues such asfragmentation in aid implementation, a bifurcated aid deliverysystem and lack of coordination.
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review in 2012, it would be timely and meaningful to reviewthe achievements of and changes in Korea’s developmentcooperation for the past two years since its accession toDAC through the eyes of the Korean public. As the discussionon the reform of aid policy and management system is ongoing,Korea needs to closely monitor how the public’s perception of global development, poverty issues and international develop-ment cooperation policies has been shaped.This paper reviews how Korean citizens perceive the relativelynew issue of development cooperation and how the Korean
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-
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 public support, awareness, preference and participation aboutforeign aid in Korea to see how it has evolved over time and howit relates to Korea’s ODA policy and practice. Furthermore, wewill also make comparisons with other countries’ public survey
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-istics of Korean public opinion in a broader context.
Trends in Public Opinion on Development Aid in Korea
Background of Surveys on Development Aid in Korea
Facing a downturn in the level of ODA spending after the Asian
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1999 and MOFAT
1
conducted another survey in 2002 for thetargeted group of ‘opinion leaders’ who are more engaged inODA policy, in addition to the general public. In 2003,
 Dong-A Daily
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survey with KOICA. The earlier surveys were designed mainlyfor the purpose of public relations about ODA. The questionsfocused on the level of attention on ODA, and the awarenesson Korean government’s ODA and its implementing agencies.
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support for the expansion of ODA was posited as one of theKorean government’s policy priorities. In this regard, the KoreaInformation Agency conducted a survey in 2005 and MOFATalso initiated surveys in 2008 and 2010 respectively. Thesesurveys added questions closely related to decision-makingissues such as opinions about the expansion of ODA volume, priority regions and sectors to provide assistance, and ODA’scontribution to poverty reduction or national interest.This section of the paper presents the result of the most recent public survey on development cooperation conducted in 2011 by Gallup Korea on behalf of the Korea Institute for Inter-
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involving 1,000 respondents. The detailed demographic char-
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Box 1
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KOREA’S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - 65
acteristics of the respondents in this survey are summarizedin Box 1. The composition of respondents by gender was 50 percent each for male and female. The age group was divided
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 percent. In terms of region, the survey followed theadministrative district of the country and the number of samplewas proportionately distributed according to the regional population; Seoul and Gyunggi area had the largest number of respondents over 20 percent each and the rest of the 14regions had 1.0 to 7.4 percent of respondents depending onthe size of the regional population.The survey questions include various aspects of foreignaid such as motives for aid giving, level of support for aid, priorities in aid policy, effectiveness of aid as well as accessto relevant information. It also reviewed the results of pastsurveys conducted in Korea as well as in other donor countries
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2
to gain a more comprehensive understandingof the Korean public’s opinion on aid within various time seriesand country context.Comparing the results with the previous surveys, threedata sets are reviewed to compare the trend of public perceptionsand attitudes toward foreign aid in Korea.
3
Additionally, thesurvey results of other donor countries will be introducedto compare the similarities and differences vis-à-vis Koreadespite limitations imposed on the direct comparison amongdonor countries due to variations in the design, methodologyand the respondent sample of each survey limit.The following section introduces the level of support and
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Table 1
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Korea Information AgencyMOFATMOFATKIEP Target group (age)Sample sizeSampling method Survey modeDuration of surveyNumber of questionsSampling error Survey agency20+ years1,000proportional sampling  Telephone2005.812±3.1%p(95% C.L.) TNS19+ years500proportional sampling Face to face2008.825±4.38%p(95% C.L.)Gallup20+ years1,002
WYVWVY[PVUHSZ[YH[PÄLK 
systematic sampling Telephone2010.1012±3.8%p(95% C.L.)InfoMaster20+ years1,000
T\S[PZ[HNLZ[YH[PÄLK
random samplingFace to face2011.1522±3.1%p(95% C.L.)Gallup
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 this table only list surveys conducted after 2005.
responses to various policy related issues such as motivationof aid, volume of aid, priority regions and areas as well as theassessment of aid effectiveness will be presented in the next part of the paper with corresponding policy initiatives andchanges in Korea.
Public Support
The Korean public appears highly supportive of ODA asmore than 90 percent of respondents strongly acknowledgedthe importance of development aid. The support levelincreased by more than 30 percent compared to the 2005survey. This level of support in Korea is on par with the
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according to the 2010 survey. Given that two thirds
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Korea as a developing country, it is interesting to know thatthe recognition of national status did not much affect thelevel of support for foreign aid.While Koreans are largely supportive of development aid,survey results indicate that they tend to be less enthusias-tic when it comes to scaling up the aid volume. ThoughKoreans are more generous than before regarding the level
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Such limited support for the expansion of the ODA budgetdespite the higher level of support for the principle of devel-opment assistance could be best explained by the concernsover the current state of the economy, according to previous
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respondents were concerned with the country’s economic

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