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Principles and Techniques of Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Principles and Techniques of Teaching English as a Foreign Language

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Published by Hossein Aslanabadi
methodology and Language Teaching
methodology and Language Teaching

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Hossein Aslanabadi on Jan 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Techniquesand Principlesin LanguageTeaching
Second Edition
Acknowledgments viiTo the Teacher Educator ix
1 Introduction 12 The Grammar-Translation Method 113 The Direct Method 234 The Audio-Lingual Method 355 The Silent Way 536 Desuggestopedia 737 Community Language Learning 898 Total Physical Response 1079 Communicative Language Teaching 12110 Content-based, Task-based, and ParticipatoryApproaches 13711 Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning,and Multiple Intelligences 15912 Conclusion 177Appendix 191
The Grammar-TranslationMethod
The Grammar-Translation Method is not new. It has had different names,but it has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time itwas called the Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek ( Chastain 1988 ). Earlier in thiscentury, this method was used for the purpose of helping students readand appreciate foreign languages literature. It was also hoped that,through the study of the grammar of the target language, students wouldbecome more familiar with the grammar of their native language and thatthis familiarity would help them speak and write their native languagebetter.Finally, it was thought that foreign language learning would help studentsgrow intellectually; it was recognized that students would probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it would bebeneficial anyway.Let us try to understand the Grammar-Translation Method by observing aclass where the teacher is using it. The class is a high-intermediate levelEnglish class at university in Colombia. There are forty-two students in theclass. Two-hour classes are conducted three times a week.
As we enter the classroom, the class is in the middle of reading a passagein their textbook. The passage is an excerpt entitled ‘The Boys’ Ambition’from Mark Twain’s
Life on the Mississippi 
Each student is called on toread a few lines from the passage. After they have finished reading, theyare asked to translate into Spanish the few lines they have just read. Theteacher helps them with new vocabulary items. When the students havefinished reading and translating the passage, the teacher asks them inSpanish if they have any question. One girl raises her hand and says;‘What is paddle wheel?’ The teacher replies, ‘
Es una rueda de paletas
.’Then she continues in Spanish to explain how it looked and worked on thesteamboats which moved up and down the Mississippi River during
Mark Twain's childhood. Another student says, 'No understand"gorgeous.” The teacher translates, '

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