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Noise Pollution in Dhaka City

Noise Pollution in Dhaka City

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Published by Muhammad Mahadi

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Published by: Muhammad Mahadi on Jan 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/25/2013

 
 Noise Pollution In Dhaka City.Muhammad MahadiEnvironmental Science Discipline
Introduction:
Much discussion occurs in the media over the many serious environmental problems that Bangladesh faces. Recently, polythene bags in particular have drawn muchattention so much so that the Government of Bangladesh banned the use of polythene shopping bags. Air pollution is also often discussed, though measures to reduce it have been limited todate.But what about noise pollution? While it is sometimes mentioned, it has not received seriousattention. To some Dhaka residents, it may be considered more of a necessary aggravation than aserious problem that can be addressed. Noise pollution is not only an aggravation, but also a serious health risk. The WHO hasestablished maximum allowable levels of noise, above which people are harmed; it is widelyknown that in many parts of Dhaka city, those levels are regularly exceeded. Regular exposure tohigh levels of noise damages hearing. Noise pollution can also increase stress and blood pressure, cause troubles sleeping and concentrating, and lead to bad tempers and fights. Noise pollution can also be reduced, through passage and enforcement of laws, and increasing of publicawareness about the problem and ways to reduce it. Noise pollution continues to pose a major health threat for Bangladesh, especially in cities and particularly in Dhaka city. People of Dhaka city mostly suffer from the bad effects of noise pollution. Approximately 12 million people now live in the capital city where traffic congestionis a regular phenomenon almost in every road, lane and by-lane. This traffic congestion is theroot cause of noise pollution as most of the motor vehicles especially buses, mini-buses andtrucks have hydraulic horns and the drivers are trained to honk continuously till they get their ways clear. Other reasons for honking that creates noise pollution include reckless driving,overtaking and drivers’ lack of knowledge on the impact of noise pollution. Moreover, use of  brick-crushing machines in the locality and abuse of loudspeakers are other causes of noise pollution. In my discussion here I discuss about the noise pollution of Dhaka city.
What is noise :
 
In simple terms, noise is unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which isemitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through
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 Noise Pollution In Dhaka City.Muhammad MahadiEnvironmental Science Discipline
nerves. Sounds produced by all vibrating bodies are not audible. The frequency limits of audibility are from 20 HZ to 20,000 HZ.A noise problem generally consists of three inter-related elements- the source, the receiver andthe transmission path. This transmission path is usually the atmosphere through which the soundis propagated, but can include the structural materials of any building containing the receiver (See Fig. 1)
Fig.
1 Inter-relationship between the elements of noise Noise may be continuous or intermittent. Noise may be of high frequency or of low frequencywhich is undesired for a normal hearing. For example, the typical cry of a child produces sound,which is mostly unfavorable to normal hearing. Since it is unwanted sound, we call it noise.The discrimination and differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon the habit andinterest of the person/species receiving it, the ambient conditions and impact of the soundgenerated during that particular duration of time. There could be instances that, excellentlyrendered musical concert for example, may be felt as noise and exceptional music as well duringthe course of the concert !
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 Noise Pollution In Dhaka City.Muhammad MahadiEnvironmental Science Discipline
Sounds of frequencies less than 20 HZ are called infrasonics and greater than 20,0000 HZ arecalled ultrasonics. Since noise is also a sound, the terms noise and sound are synonymously usedand are followed in this module.
How Sound Computed :
 
The intensity of sound is measured in sound pressure levels (SPL)and common unit of measurement is decibel, dB. The community (ambient) noise levels aremeasured in the A - weighted SPL, abbreviated dB(A). This scale resembles the audible responseof human ear. Sounds of frequencies from 800 to 3000 HZ are covered by the A - weighted scale.If the sound pressure level, L1 in dB is measured at r1 meters, then the sound pressure level, L2in dB at r2 meters is given by,L2 = L1 - 20 log10 (r2/r1) ...... (1)If the sound levels are measured in terms of pressure, then, sound pressure level, LP is given by,LP = 20 Log10 (P/Po) dB(A) ...... (2)The Lp is measured against a standard reference pressure, Po = 2 x 10-5 N/m2 which isequivalent to zero decibels. The sound pressure is the pressure exerted at a point due to a sound producing source (see. Fig. 2)Fig. 2 Definition of sound pressure
Day-night equivalent noise levels (Ldn)
: The day night equivalent noise levels of a communitycan be expressed as -Ldn , dB(A) = 10 x log10 [15/24 (10Ld/10) + 9/24 (10(Ln + 10)/10)] ............... (3)
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Shaoib Ullah liked this
iwadud added this note
very useful information. and a very good research paper. where can I complain,, if there is noise in my city ( Uttara, Dhaka), Thanks
Milon Sultan liked this
Mahmudul Islam added this note
excellent paper, carry on................
Nasar Uddin liked this

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