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Climatology

Climatology

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Published by Kalindi Ps

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Published by: Kalindi Ps on Dec 01, 2012
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10/08/2013

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CHAPTER - 2
CLIMATE AND BUILDINGS
Contents:
2.1 Introduction2.2 Factors affecting climate2.3 Climatic zones and their characteristics2.4 Implications of climate on building design2.5 Urban climate2.6 Microclimate2.7 Tools for analysing weather data2.8 Illustrative exampleReferences
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The weather of a place represents the state of the atmospheric environment over a brief periodof time. Integrated weather condition over several years is generally referred to as climate or morespecifically, as the ‘macro-climate’. An analysis of the climate of a particular region can help inassessing the seasons or periods during which a person may experience comfortable oruncomfortable conditions. It further helps in identifying the climatic elements, as well as theirseverity, that cause discomfort. The information helps a designer to build a house that filters outadverse climatic effects, while simultaneously allowing those that are beneficial. Discomfort andthe corresponding energy demand for mechanical systems can be significantly reduced by judicious control of the climatic effects. The built-form and arrangement of openings of a buildingcan be suitably derived from this analysis. For example, in a place like Mumbai, one feels hot andsweaty owing to intense solar radiation accompanied by high humidity. Here, the building designshould be such that (a) it is sufficiently shaded to prevent solar radiation from entering the houseand, (b) it is ventilated to reduce discomfort due to high humidity. On the other hand, in a placelike Shimla, it is necessary to maintain warmth inside the building due to the predominantly coldclimate. Climate thus plays a pivotal role in determining the design and construction of a building.In this chapter, we will review the various aspects of climate and the methods of its analysis.This includes a brief description of the various climatic factors and climatic zones of India. Thedesign requirements of buildings in different climatic zones are discussed and tabulated.Illustrative examples provide information on how to analyse the climatic conditions of a place.
2.2 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE
Both weather and climate are characterised by the certain variables known as climaticfactors [1]. They are as follows:(A) Solar radiation(B) Ambient temperature(C) Air humidity(D) Precipitation(E) Wind(F) Sky condition
 
 
(A) Solar radiation
Solar radiation is the radiant energy received from the sun. It is the intensity of sunraysfalling per unit time per unit area and is usually expressed in Watts per square metre (W/m
2
). Theradiation incident on a surface varies from moment to moment depending on its geographiclocation (latitude and longitude of the place), orientation, season, time of day and atmosphericconditions (Fig. 2.1). Solar radiation is the most important weather variable that determineswhether a place experiences high temperatures or is predominantly cold. The instruments used formeasuring of solar radiation are the pyranometer and the pyrheliometer. The duration of sunshineis measured using a sunshine recorder.
BUILDING ON A SOUTHFACING SLOPE INSHIMLA WILL RECEIVETO OTHER ORIENTATIONSMORE RADIATION COMPAREDEXAMPLE:
EFFECT OF ORIENTATION
IS HIGHER THAN ON HORIZONTAL SURFACESSOLAR RADIATION ON SURFACES NORMAL TO SUNS' RAYS
 
(a)
SUN IN NORTHERN HEMISPHEREIN SUMMER FOR MUMBAI (LATITUDE 19.12 °N)EXAMPLE:NORTHWEST ROOM TENDS TOGET HOTTEST IN MUMBAIIN APRIL, MAY AND JUNESOUTHWEST ROOMIN OTHER MONTHSTENDS TO BE HOTTEST
EFFECT OF SEASON
SUN IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHEREIN WINTER FOR MUMBAI (LATITUDE 19.12 °N)
 
(b)
Fig. 2.1 Factors affecting solar radiation(a) effect of orientation, (b) effect of season
 
 
SUNLIGHT CUT-OFF IN MONSOONDUE TO PRESENCE OF CLOUDSDIRECT SUNLIGHTIN SUMMERSEXAMPLE:MUMBAI IS COOL IN THEMONTH OF AUGUST DUEAND RAINFALLTO PRESENCE OF CLOUDS
EFFECT OF SKY COVER
 (c)
SUN DIRECTLY OVERHEAD AT NOONTHEREFORE SOLAR RADIATION IS MORESUN AT AN ANGLE IN EVENINGTHEREFORE SOLAR RADIATION IS LESS
EFFECT OF TIME
SOUTHWEST WALLS RECIEVEIN LATE AFTERNOONS,GET MAXIMUM SOLAR RADIATIONAT NOON, A HORIZONTAL ROOF WILLMORE RADIATIONEXAMPLE:
 
(d)
Fig. 2.1 Factors affecting solar radiation (cont.)(c) effect of sky cover, (d) effect of time
 
(B) Ambient temperature
The temperature of air in a shaded (but well ventilated) enclosure is known as the ambienttemperature; it is generally expressed in degree Celsius (ºC). Temperature at a given site dependson wind as well as local factors such as shading, presence of water body, sunny condition, etc.When the wind speed is low, local factors strongly influence on temperature of air close to theground. With higher wind speeds, the temperature of the incoming air is less affected by localfactors. The effect of various factors on the ambient temperature is shown in Fig. 2.2. A simplethermometer kept in a Stevenson’s screen can measure ambient temperature.

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