LJ Transmission Line Trainer : Chapter 12
The oscillator is made using an amplifier and a feedback path. To make an oscillator, positivefeed back is needed.
The amplifier has a gain of A and a feedback fraction β. Feedback friction β takes
aproportion of output vo and feed it back to the input, which is then added to input voltaqge Vi.Positive feedback is when the voltage applied to amplifier A is greater than input voltage Vi,giving a greater gain with feedback than wihout feedback.The new gain G with feedback can be derieved as
. The term of Aβ is called closed
If A β<1 then G>A. If A=1 then G=∞, that is the amplifier is unstable and in pratical termswill oscillate. The phase angle of Aβ=0 is called the Barkhaus
en Criterion for oscillation.Notice that the magnitude has to be 1 and the phase has to be zero.Figure 45 assumes a perfect amplier and feedback circuit. In pratical systems with positviefeedback it is impossible to have again of infinity. However, as the gain is very highm thesmallest input causes the output to head towards the supply. As a pratical amplifier only haslinear gain over a certain voltage range then the gain of the amplifier falls, so the feedback fraction falls. The input to the amplifier falls, which causes the output to fall and start headingtoward the othe supply rail. This continues the oscillation
Explain the principles of how oscillators are made2.
Investigate how to make an oscillator using the Transmission Line Trainer