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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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12/04/2012

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LJ Transmission Line Trainer : Chapter 12
Introduction
The oscillator is made using an amplifier and a feedback path. To make an oscillator, positivefeed back is needed.
The amplifier has a gain of A and a feedback fraction β. Feedback friction β takes
aproportion of output vo and feed it back to the input, which is then added to input voltaqge Vi.Positive feedback is when the voltage applied to amplifier A is greater than input voltage Vi,giving a greater gain with feedback than wihout feedback.The new gain G with feedback can be derieved as

. The term of Aβ is called closed
loop gain.
If A β<1 then G>A. If A=1 then G=∞, that is the amplifier is unstable and in pratical termswill oscillate. The phase angle of Aβ=0 is called the Barkhaus
en Criterion for oscillation.Notice that the magnitude has to be 1 and the phase has to be zero.Figure 45 assumes a perfect amplier and feedback circuit. In pratical systems with positviefeedback it is impossible to have again of infinity. However, as the gain is very highm thesmallest input causes the output to head towards the supply. As a pratical amplifier only haslinear gain over a certain voltage range then the gain of the amplifier falls, so the feedback fraction falls. The input to the amplifier falls, which causes the output to fall and start headingtoward the othe supply rail. This continues the oscillation
Objective:
1.

Explain the principles of how oscillators are made2.

Investigate how to make an oscillator using the Transmission Line Trainer

Equipment
: CT30 Transmission Line Trainer, Power Supply, Set of 4mm leads, Oscilloscope
Procedure
1.

The power supply is connected as shown below.2.

Set the switch as below

All switched faults are off

Switch the pulsge generator off

Set the summing amplifier couping to AC

Set the summing amplifier output impedance to FIXED

Set the summing amplifier gain to minimum

Set the noise generator AMPLITUDE contro to minimum3.

4mm of lead is connected from output of the summing amplifier to the input of simulated 50 ohm line.4.

4 mm lead is connected from the output of the simulated 50ohm line to variableresistor R in the Termination Unit. Set the resistor to its mid point.5.

Another 4mm lead is connected from the variable resistor R in the termination Unit tothe input of the Summing Amplifier.

6.

The power is switch on.7.

The channel 1 of oscilloscope is connected to examine the input of the simulated 50ohm line at test point A1.8.

By varying the GAIN control you should cause the circuit to oscillate. It should bepossible to find the point where the circuit just oscillates and gives a sinewave output.9.

The frequency of oscillation is measured and recoreded.10.

The experiment is repeate by setting the summing amplifier to DC.
Result
Summing Amplifier coupling to ACBefore Oscillation start