which flowed into the Mediterranean. The Delta area was rich in arable land and was known as Ta-mehumeaning the Land of the Papyrus Plant. Lower Egypt was divided into 20 districts. The main cities of Lower Egypt were as follows:
Capitals of Upper & Lower in the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period -Hierakonpolis & Thinis
During the time of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period (1st–11th Dynasties) Lower Egyptwas ruled from the capital at Pe in the northwest Delta. Upper Egypt was ruled from two capitals whichwere located at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) or Thinis (near Abydos).
Ancient Egyptian Capitals - Memphis
Memphis, in Lower Egypt, was established as the capital of Egypt which founded around 3100 BC and isthe legendary city of Menes, the King who united Upper and Lower Egypt. Menes founded the firstdynasty of the Old Kingdom. Memphis continued to be the capital of Egypt but during the FirstIntermediate Period (2181 BC - 2040 BC) and the 7th - 10th Egyptian Dynasties Egypt saw a breakdownof central government. Following this period of unrest the Middle Kingdom (2040 BC - 1782 BC) whichincluded the 11th - 13th - Egyptian Dynasties saw a change in the capitals.
Ancient Egyptian Capitals - Thebes, Amarna, Memphis and Alexandria
The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom dynasties were based at Thebes. A change in capitals occurred duringthe reign of the heretic king Akhenaten (1351 -1337) who constructed a new capital, Akhetaten ('Horizonof Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna. The site of Akhetaten was halfway between Memphis andThebes. After Akhenaten's death, his son-in-law Tutankhaten abandoned the Aten cult and the newcapital and moved the Egyptian government back to Memphis and Thebes. By the 25th Dynasty a line of Kushite kings based in their capital at Napata. In 332BC Alexander the Great occupied Egypt and hisgeneral, Ptolemy, became king and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty. The city of Alexandria was foundedand became the capital.
List of Ancient Egyptian Capitals
The following list details the Ancient Egyptian capitals:
Akhetaten - at the site now known as Amarna
Memphis & Thebes
Al-Qahira (Cairo) which was established in 969AD and is the present capital
Ancient Egyptian Capitals
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