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Electrical Machines II compiled by mumtaz buriro

Electrical Machines II compiled by mumtaz buriro



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Published by Mumtaz ALi
Book for Electrical Engineering
Book for Electrical Engineering

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Published by: Mumtaz ALi on Jan 31, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1 Introduction
Michael Faraday propounded the principle of electro-magnetic induction in 1831.It states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the flux linkedwith the same changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the flux linkages. This finding forms the basis for many magneto electric machines.The earliest use of this phenomenon was in the development of induction coils. These coilswere used to generate high voltage pulses to ignite the explosive charges in the mines. Asthe d.c. power system was in use at that time, very little of transformer principle was madeuse of. In the d.c. supply system the generating station and the load center have to benecessarily close to each other due to the requirement of economic transmission of power.Also the d.c. generators cannot be scaled up due to the limitations of the commutator. Thismade the world look for other efficient methods for bulk power generation and transmis-sion. During the second half of the 19th century the alternators, transformers and inductionmotors were invented. These machines work on alternating power supply. The role of thetransformers became obvious. The transformer which consisted of two electric circuits linkedby a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keepingthe power invariant. The efficiency of such conversion was extremely high. Thus one couldchoose a moderate voltage for the generation of a.c. power, a high voltage for the transmis-sion of this power over long distances and finally use a small and safe operating voltage atthe user end. All these are made possible by transformers. The a.c. power systems thus gotwell established.1
Transformers can link two or more electric circuits. In its simple form two electriccircuits can be linked by a magnetic circuit, one of the electric coils is used for the creationof a time varying magnetic filed. The second coil which is made to link this field has aninduced voltage in the same. The magnitude of the induced emf is decided by the numberof turns used in each coil. Thus the voltage level can be increased or decreased by changingthe number of turns. This excitation winding is called a primary and the output windingis called a secondary. As a magnetic medium forms the link between the primary and thesecondary windings there is no conductive connection between the two electric circuits. Thetransformer thus provides an electric isolation between the two circuits. The frequency onthe two sides will be the same. As there is no change in the nature of the power, the re-sulting machine is called a ‘transformer’ and not a ‘converter’. The electric power at onevoltage/current level is only ‘transformed’ into electric power, at the same frequency, to an-other voltage/current level.Even though most of the large-power transformers can be found in the power systems,the use of the transformers is not limited to the power systems. The use of the principleof transformers is universal. Transformers can be found operating in the frequency rangestarting from a few hertz going up to several mega hertz. Power ratings vary from a fewmilliwatts to several hundreds of megawatts. The use of the transformers is so wide spreadthat it is virtually impossible to think of a large power system without transformers. Demandon electric power generation doubles every decade in a developing country. For every MVAof generation the installed capacity of transformers grows by about 7MVA. These figuresshow the indispensable nature of power transformers.2
2 Basic Principles
As mentioned earlier the transformer is a static device working on the principle of Faraday’s law of induction. Faraday’s law states that a voltage appears across the terminalsof an electric coil when the flux linkages associated with the same changes. This emf isproportional to the rate of change of flux linkages. Putting mathematically,
(1)Where, e is the induced emf in volt and
is the flux linkages in Weber turn. Fig. 1 shows aFigure 1: Flux linkages of a coilcoil of 
turns. All these N turns link flux lines of 
Weber resulting in the
flux linkages.In such a case,
volt (3)The change in the flux linkage can be brought about in a variety of ways
coil may be static and unmoving but the flux linking the same may change with time.3

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