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Digital Modulation

Digital Modulation

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Published by Công Thủy Hoàng

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Published by: Công Thủy Hoàng on Dec 04, 2012
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07/10/2013

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Chapter 1 :Digital Modulation techniques
1.1
 
WHAT IS THE MODULATION?
 Modulation
is the process of encoding information from a message source in amanner suitable for transmission.It is generally involves translating a baseband message signal (called the source) to abandpass signal at frequencies that are very high when compared to the base bandfrequency.The bandpass signal is called the modulated signal, and the baseband message signalis called the modulating signal.Modulation may be done by varying the amplitude, phase or frequency of a highfrequency carrier in accordance with the amplitude of the message signal.
 Demodulation
is the process of extracting the baseband message from the carrier sothat it may be processed by the intended receiver.
1.1.1
 
Why we modulate signals?
 
In order to ease propagation process and use an antenna of a suitable length.Since the effective radiation of EM waves requires antenna dimensionscomparable with the wavelength:e.g. -Antenna for 3 kHz would be ~100 km long.-Antenna for 3 GHz carrier is 10 cm long.
 
Sharing the access to the telecommunication channel resources:This is done by using
 FDM 
(Frequency division multiplexing) technique.
 
In order to transmit larger power for wide area:If we amplify the data power using power amplifiers, it will be distorted, sowe perform modulation and amplify the carrier power.
 
In order to reduce noise effects in case of non-white Gaussian noise.
 
1.1.2
 
Why Digital? (Analog versus Digital):
Modern mobile communication systems use digital modulation techniques.Advancements in very large-scale integration (VLSI) and digital signal processing(DSP) technology have made digital modulation more cost effective than analogtransmission systems.Digital modulation offers many advantages over analog modulation. Someadvantages include greater noise immunity and robustness to channel impairments,easier multiplexing of various forms of information (e.g., voice, data, and video), andgreater security. Furthermore, digital transmissions accommodate digital error-controlcodes which detect and/or correct transmission errors, and support complex signalconditioning and processing techniques such as source coding, encryption, andequalization to improve the performance of the overall communication link. Newmultipurpose programmable digital signal processors have made it possible toimplement digital modulators and demodulators completely in software. Instead of having a particular modem design permanently frozen as hardware, embedded
 
software implementations now allow alterations and improvements without having toredesign or replace the modem.We introduce here in
table(1.1)
a comparison between analog and digital modulationschemes to conclude the assessment of both modulation schemes usage in Wirelesscommunication systems
Digital
 
Analog
 
Large bandwidth(
Disadvantage
)Less bandwidth(
Advantage
)Less accurate due to the Quantizationerror that can not be avoided orcorrected. (
Disadvantage
)More accurate (
Advantage
)High noise immunity as the amplitudeof the digital has two levels only andchannel coding(error correctingcodes) can be used. (
Advantage
)Low noise immunity (
Disadvantage
).
 
High level of security as you can useEncryption (Ciphering) andAuthentication. (
Advantage
)
 
Low level of security. (
Disadvantage
)
 
Support complex signal conditioningand processing techniques such assource coding, encryption, andequalization((
Advantage
)No signal conditioning and processingare used (
Disadvantage
)High QOS. (
Advantage
)Low QOS. (
Disadvantage
)You can use FDM, TDM, CDM,OFDM multiplexing techniques.(
Advantage
)
 
You can use FDM only(
Disadvantage
)In mobile communications, digitalsupports voice, SMS, data (you canaccess the internet), images and videocall. (
Advantage
)
 
In mobile communications, analogsupports voice service only.(
Disadvantage
)Easily designed using software(
Advantage
).More difficult to design than Digital.(
Disadvantage
)
Table (1.1)
comparisons between analog and digital modulation schemes
 
 
1.1.3
 
Factors that influence the choice of digital modulation:
 
A desirable modulation scheme should provide:
 
Low bit error rates at low received signal to noise ratio.
 
Performs well in multi-path and fading conditions, and in interferenceenvironment.
 
Occupies a minimum bandwidth.
 
Easy and cost-effective to implement.
 
Cost and complexity of the receiver subscribers must be minimized.
 
Modulation which is simple to detect is most attractive.
 Note That
: There is no modulation scheme that satisfies all these requirements, sotrade-offs are made when selecting a modulation scheme.
1.1.4
 
The performance of a modulation scheme :
We assess the performance of the modulation scheme by measuring the
 
Power efficiency (
η
P
)
.
 
 
Bandwidth efficiency(
η
B
).
 
Power spectral density.
 
System complexity.
1.1.4.1 Power effic
iency η
P
:
The
 power efficiency
is defined as the required E
b
 /N
o
(Ratio of the signal energy perbit to noise power spectral density) at the input of the receiver for a certain bit errorprobability P
b
over an AWGN channel.Power efficiency describes the ability of a modulation technique to preserve the biterror probability of digital message at low power levels.In digital modulation systems, in order to increase the noise immunity, it is necessaryto increase the signal power, so there is a trade-off between the signal power and thebit error probability. The power efficiency is a measure of how favorably this trade-off is made.
1.1.4.2 Bandwidth efficiency (Spectral efficiency)
η
B
:
 Bandwidth efficiency
describes the ability of a modulation scheme to accommodatedata within a limited bandwidth.As the data rate increases, pulse width of the digital symbols decreases and hence thebandwidth increases.
=

 

/

eqn (1.1)The system capacity of a digital mobile communication system is directly related tothe bandwidth efficiency for a modulation scheme.So a modulation scheme with greater value
of η
B
will transmit more data in a givenspectrum allocation.
 Note that
the maximum possible bandwidth efficiency is limited by the noise in thechannel according to
Shannon's Theorem
as:
 

=

=

2
1+
eqn (1.2)
 
Where C is the channel capacity in bps , and S/N is the signal to noise ratio
 
.

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