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Published by Engin Yiğit
Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis
Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis

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Published by: Engin Yiğit on Dec 05, 2012
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Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis.Case Study for 220/110 kV Substation
Marius Cornoiu*, Constantin Barbulescu*, Dan Jigoria-Oprea*, Stefan Kilyeni*, Gabriela Prostean**, Razvan Teslovan** “Politehnica” University, Power Systems Department, Timisoara, Romania** “Politehnica” University, Management Department, Timisoara, Romaniamarius.cornoiu@et.upt.ro, constantin.barbulescu@et.upt.ro, dan.jigoria@et.upt.ro, stefan.kilyeni@et.upt.ro,gabrriela.prostean@mpt.upt.ro, razvan.teslovan@et.upt.ro
 Abstract 
 —Power quality is the set of regulations of electricalproperties that allows electrical systems to function withoutsignificant loss of performance or aging. The term is used todescribe electric power that drives an electrical load and theload's ability to operate properly with that electric power.Without the proper power, an electrical device (or load) maymalfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There aremany ways when poor quality electric power is recorded andmany more causes of such poor quality power. The purposeof the paper is to analyze the impact that different consumers,acting on the open market, has with respect to the powerquality aspects. Within the paper a real case study is analyzed.It is represented by a real substation within the RomanianPower System. The power quality monitoring process hasbeen performed in case of the respective substation. The linkswith the rest of the power system, such as two importanthydro power plants and the neighbouring area has been alsoconsidered.
 Keywords—power quality, monitoring, analysis, substation
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 Power quality (PQ) is a term which has captured increas-ing attention in power engineering within the recent years.For most of the electric power engineers, the term refersto a certain sufficiently high grade of electric service.Usually the term quality refers to maintaining a sinusoidalwaveform of bus voltages at rated voltage and frequency [1].One of the fundamental challenges facing utility andworking staff is the need to become familiar with and stayinformed about issues dealing with power quality. Power suppliers and also the customers are going to find a solid background in power quality not only useful, but necessarytoo, for continued productivity and competitiveness. Thesefacts are supported by the utility industry which undergoesrestructuring and as customers find their service needschanging with increased use of equipment and processesmore susceptible to power system disturbances.Power quality is a growing concern for a wide range of customers. Industrial customers can experience interruptionsof important processes during momentary voltage sags asso-ciated with faults within the utility system [2]. Commercialcustomers are installing high efficiency lighting andelectronic office equipment, resulting in higher harmoniclevels in the buildings. These harmonic sources causeexcessive neutral currents and transformer overheating.Even residential customers are concerned about surge protection for sensitive electronics in the home and theimpact of momentary interruptions on their electronicequipment.Power quality within the electric distribution system is agrowing concern. Customers require higher quality servicedue to more sensitive electronic and computer-controlledloads. Capacitor switching events and voltage sags asso-ciated with remote faults that never caused problems inthe past, now cause equipment tripping and even failureswithin customer facilities. Also, customer loads are gener-ating increasing amounts of harmonic currents that can be magnified on the distribution system due to resonanceconditions [3].As technology becomes more advanced, equipment has become more sensitive to fluctuations in voltage alongthe distribution line. New equipment that increases productivity for a plant may also cause power quality problems for other equipment down the line [4]. Power quality is now viewed from a systems perspective rather than as an isolated instrument problem. Understandingthe entire scope of the problem helps in identifying thesolution and preventing future occurrences.The existence of disturbances requires analysis, monitoringand taking measures to ensure the quality of electricity.Therefore, disturbances are those that significantly reducethe quality of electricity affecting the generation, trans-mission and distribution process, but also the electricityconsumption [2].Voltage is the main qualitative element that conditionsthe proper functioning of the receptor. That is why thevoltage quality practically defines the power quality [5], [6].The paper is focusing on the power quality monitoring incase of an important substation within the RomanianPower System.Power quality monitoring systems continuously measureand analyze the power quality, and can carry out additionalfunctions, such as communication with an internet network,statistical analysis through uninterrupted measurements, andweb-based deployment. Generally, the PQ monitoringsystems are classified in three generations, which varyaccording to functions performed [2]. In the 1
st
gen-eration, the functions are displaying electrical parameters(voltage, current, and power, etc.) and evaluating power quality. In the 2
nd
generation, the functions are eventdetecting, power quality parameter computing, serial com-munication and feature display. Finally, the functions inthe 3
rd
generation are power quality parameter computing,communication and web-browsing features [4]. Withinthis paper the authors are presenting a 2
nd
generationmonitoring equipment.
EXPRES 2011 • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources • March 11-12, 2011, Subotica, Serbia
- 133 -
978-1-4577-0098-9/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
 
Concerning the structure of the paper, following theintroduction, presented within the 1
st
section, the 2
nd
oneis discussing the issues regarding the link between theconsumers and the power quality aspects. The case studyis presented within the 3
rd
section: a real substation fromthe Romanian Power System. The 4
th
section is dedicatedfor the analysis and discussion of the data obtained fromthe acquisition process and of the results. The finalconclusions are synthesized within the 5
th
section.II.
 
Q
UANTIFYING THE
C
ONSUMERS
 The electric consumers react and take part at changesin electric system parameters, influencing its entire behav-iour [3]. The change of the system electric quantities(voltage and frequency) from the receptor point of view isdescribed by the system characteristics (real and reactive power variation versus voltage and frequency). They arestatic, if the dependency corresponds to the steady state,or dynamic, if a transient operating condition is considered.The knowledge of static characteristics is very importantin voltage and frequency control issues.Regarding the static characteristics of the complexconsumer, their identification is a special issue. It can betackled on analytical basis (assembling the characteristics of the individual components) or experimentally (consideringthe measurements) [7]. In [7] are presented in detail thesolutions for the aforementioned aspects, having as a goalto analyze the sensitivity of the real and reactive consumed power regarding the voltage.The daily load curves provide a graphical qualitativeand quantitative image of the real and reactive power consumption [7].Characteristic quantities for the daily load curves:
 
the daily real energy:
24a0
()[kWh],[MWh]
WPtd
(1)
 
the daily reactive energy:
240
()[kVArh],[MVArh]
WQtd
(2)
 
the maximum
 
/
 
minimum real
 
/
 
reactive consumed power (
 P 
min
,
 P 
max
,
Q
min
,
Q
max
);
 
the average daily consumed power:
240avg
()24
 Ptdt  P 
or 
240avg
()24
QtdQ
(3)
 
the daily flattening coefficient:
medPmax
 P  P 
;
medQmax
QQ
(4)
 
the daily non-uniformity coefficient:
minPmax
 P  P 
;
minQmax
QQ
(5)
 
the daily maximum power usage:
24amaxmax0
()
UP 
 PTdt  P
;
24maxmax0
()
UQ
QTdt QQ
(6)
 
the average power factor:
amed22a
cos()
W
(7)
 
the power factor of maximum load:
maxmax22maxmax
cos()
 P  PQ
(8)
 
the average square power:
24220
1
 PPtdt 
;
24220
1
QQtd
(9)
 
the form factor (being the ratio between the RMSvalue and the average value):
2PF
 P  P 
;
2QF
QQ
(10)
 
the real power variation coefficient:
22P
avg 
 Pc P 
;
22Q
avg 
QQcQ
. (11)The quantities (1)-(11) are computed and their numericalvalues are presented in [7].III.
 
C
ASE
S
TUDY
 The case study refers to Iaz 220/110 kV substation andneighbouring network area, within the Romanian Power System:
 
Ruieni Hydro Power Plant (2x70 MW) and Ruienisubstation with two step up power transformers(2x90 MVA) and a double circuit 110 kV OHLRuieni-Iaz;
 
Raul Alb Hydro Power Plant (2x20 MW) and 110 kVOHL Raul Alb-Caransebes-Iaz;
 
Iaz substation (Fig. 1) with two 231/121/10.5 kVautotransformers (AT1 and AT2 - 2x200 MVA).The used measurement equipment was TOPAS 1000.This equipment is produced by LEM NORMA GmbH – Austria was used to monitor the electrical quantities. Thisequipment is property of Romanian Power Grid CompanyTranselectrica S.A [8], [9].The base unit has 8 shielded analogue inputs that can be used for any kind of measurements for both currentand voltage. The total measurement error for the voltageor current sensor is under the Class A error according toEN 61000-4-7 norm.The measurement equipment is fitted with a 420 MB HDDallowing to be connected to a MS Windows compatiblePC through an Ethernet network connection. It can be part of any Ethernet based network (10 Base 2 twisted
M. Cornoiu et al. • Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis. Case Study for 220/110 kV Substation
- 134 -
 
 pair). Alternatively, the communication with the equipmentis established via serial port (RS 232) and serial modem.It is further noted that it has complex software allowingthe obtaining of complete protocols that compliance withEN, IEC, IEEE norms [10].The measurements were conducted between May 14
th
 and May 20
th
, 2010. Measurements and records have been conducted in the following points:
 
on the 110 kV bus bar of the 110/10.5 kV step uptransformer corresponding to the 2
nd
hydro generator from Ruieni hydro power plant;
 
on the 110 kV bus bar from Raul Alb Power Plant;
 
on the 110kV bus bar of each autotransformer fromIaz substation.
Fig. 1. One-line scheme of the Iaz substation
During the measurement and recording period, theancillary services for all the hydro power plants weresupplied directly from the hydro generators. During the period when some hydro generators were unavailable,ancillary services for Ruieni hydro power plant weresupplied from the 110 kV network and for Raul Alb from20 kV network. Also, AVR for all the hydro generatorswas enabled. Starting with May 18
th
, at 7:50 a.m., AT1from Iaz substation was retired from service.The configuration of the electrical quantities acquisition process is presented in Fig. 2.A software tool has been developed in Matlab environ-ment for data acquisition processing.
Fig. 2. Configuration of the power quality monitoring process.
IV.
 
ESULTS AND
D
ISCUSSION
 Apart from voltage measurement and recording, realand reactive power values have been also recorded for different substation circuits:
 
110 kV OHL Iaz-Nadrag;
 
110 kV OHL Iaz-Otelu Rosu;
 
110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAa;
 
110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAb.The corresponding load curves are presented in Fig. 3to Fig. 6.As it can be observed from Fig. 3, between 0:00 May16
th
and 0:00 May 18
th
, the real power transfer on Iaz- Nadrag OHL is characterized by very small variationsduring this period. The value of peak real power is muchsmaller, (almost five times smaller) compared with sametime period from previous days. During the same period,the quantity of real power transferred on Iaz-Otelu RosuOHL (Fig. 4) decreases gradually.Real power transfer on Iaz-SRAa OHL is characterized by small variations, except from May 14
th
22:00 and May15
th
10:00 when a power dip appears, the value of real power decreases with 50%. During the same period, onIaz-SRAb is registered an real power peak, when the real power increases suddenly from a few W to almost 5-5.5 kW.
EXPRES 2011 • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources • March 11-12, 2011, Subotica, Serbia
- 135 -

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