Cross Cultural Management
Analyzing Russian culture using Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions
Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary Dimensions to assist indifferentiating cultures: Power Distance - PDI, Individualism - IDV, Masculinity - MAS, andUncertainty Avoidance - UAI. Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting anadditional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employeesand managers.
Power Distance Index (PDI)
that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributedunequally.Empirical studies show that the power distance is shifting in Russian culture fromhigh to moderate. Traditionally, Russia had autocratic system which gives her a character of high power distance country. It had been high before perestroika (economic restructuring)but had declined after that time. The score declined to 46 in Naumov and Puffer study donein 2000. This is reflection of reforms leading to economic and political decentralisation andpossibly the separation of economic power wielded by private business from political power of federal and local authorities.
on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree towhich individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies inwhich the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people frombirth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (withuncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.The transformation of Russian society into market oriented economy and more civilsociety gave rise to greater uncertainty and forced decision making to individuals. The studyconfirmed that the individualism is on rise during perestroika period. The Russians comparedwith other countries were found to be less individualistic than developed countries but moreindividualistic than developing countries. The Russian communal collective started todisintegrate in the latter half of the nineteenth century led to the individual approach to acommunist system. In soviet system, the main role of a factory director consists of lookingafter the worker situation, building housing, managing shops, organising children’splayground, looking after the medical centres. Managing a business is based on loyalty anda sense of duty. A Russian proverb sums up this core factor of social life in Russia “It isbetter to have 100 friends than 100 roubles”.
versus its opposite femininity refers to the distribution of roles betweenthe genders. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest, caring pole'feminine'.Traditionally, Russians were low on masculinity. Centuries of serfdom followed by 60years of dictatorship have prevented men from developing sense of initiative. However successive wars forced widows to take their destinies into their own hands in order tosurvive. Hofstede estimated a score of 40. But the current studies have shown a higher value (59). This could be due to the sample taken which consists of Managers and Businessschool students and faculty.
K. J. SOMAIYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES AND RESEARCH