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Assignment 3

Assignment 3



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Published by atulmau
Analyzing Russian culture using Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions.
Part of Cross cultural management
Analyzing Russian culture using Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions.
Part of Cross cultural management

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Published by: atulmau on Feb 02, 2009
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Country: RussiaAssignment 3
Abhijeet Sarkar(150), AtulMaurya(128), Varun Gulati(107),Sushil Thasari(134), PaulAlapatt(139)
Cross Cultural Management
Analyzing Russian culture using Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions
Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary Dimensions to assist indifferentiating cultures: Power Distance - PDI, Individualism - IDV, Masculinity - MAS, andUncertainty Avoidance - UAI. Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting anadditional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employeesand managers.
Power Distance Index (PDI)
that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributedunequally.Empirical studies show that the power distance is shifting in Russian culture fromhigh to moderate. Traditionally, Russia had autocratic system which gives her a character of high power distance country. It had been high before perestroika (economic restructuring)but had declined after that time. The score declined to 46 in Naumov and Puffer study donein 2000. This is reflection of reforms leading to economic and political decentralisation andpossibly the separation of economic power wielded by private business from political power of federal and local authorities.
Individualism (IDV)
on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, that is the degree towhich individuals are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies inwhich the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people frombirth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (withuncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange founquestioning loyalty.The transformation of Russian society into market oriented economy and more civilsociety gave rise to greater uncertainty and forced decision making to individuals. The studyconfirmed that the individualism is on rise during perestroika period. The Russians comparedwith other countries were found to be less individualistic than developed countries but moreindividualistic than developing countries. The Russian communal collective started todisintegrate in the latter half of the nineteenth century led to the individual approach to acommunist system. In soviet system, the main role of a factory director consists of lookingafter the worker situation, building housing, managing shops, organising children’splayground, looking after the medical centres. Managing a business is based on loyalty anda sense of duty. A Russian proverb sums up this core factor of social life in Russia “It isbetter to have 100 friends than 100 roubles”. 
Masculinity (MAS)
versus its opposite femininity refers to the distribution of roles betweenthe genders. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest, caring pole'feminine'.Traditionally, Russians were low on masculinity. Centuries of serfdom followed by 60years of dictatorship have prevented men from developing sense of initiative. However successive wars forced widows to take their destinies into their own hands in order tosurvive. Hofstede estimated a score of 40. But the current studies have shown a higher value (59). This could be due to the sample taken which consists of Managers and Businessschool students and faculty. 
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Cross Cultural Management
Scores on Hofstede's cultural Dimensions
Study / CountryUncertaintyAvoidanceIndividualismCollectivismPower DistancePaternalismMasculinityFemininity
Naumov&Puffer/Russia6841405955Bollinger/Russia922676--28Hofstede's / Russia9050951040USA4691402962China60208010050Germany6567352166France8671683043Japan9246548095Source: Naumov and Puffer (2000), Measuring Russian culture using Hofstede’s Dimensions
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty andambiguity. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel eitheuncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try tominimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and securitymeasures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.Uncertainty accepting cultures are more tolerant of opinions different from what they areused to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religiouslevel they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side.Empirical studies of Naumov and Puffer (68 points) as well as Bollinger (92 points)show that Russia is high on uncertainty avoidance. High point in Bollinger study reflects theeconomic and political stagnation in 1980s. Centuries of tsar history and egalitarianismwhere decisions and equality has been handed out through a set organizational layout hasbrought about preference for social order and authoritative hierarchy. There would be agreater level of preference for tried and tested methods than experimenting with theunknown.
Long-Term Orientation (LTO)
versus short-term orientation: Values associated with LongTerm Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientationare respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'.The Russians do not have a definite time orientation; instead, they have periods of long-term and short-term time orientation. Russians can work slowly and patiently on aproject, but if they judge it highly important, they may switch modes and work tirelessly tocomplete a task. During the early years when Russia’s city and states where ruled byPrincess and Tsars, during the Russian empire and finally under communism. Russiansgave the state practically unlimited power over the whole society in industrial, agriculture andsocial spheres.
Russian culture appears to be moderate in individualism, masculinity, and power distanceand fairly high on paternalism and uncertainty avoidance. All the five dimensions showed
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