Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
2012 Canadian Police Association

2012 Canadian Police Association

Ratings: (0)|Views: 36 |Likes:
Published by Paisley Rae

2012 Canadian Police Association - Economics of Policing

2012 Canadian Police Association - Economics of Policing

More info:

Published by: Paisley Rae on Dec 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/17/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 
Economics
 
of 
 
Policing
 
April
 
2012
 
 
____________________________________________________________________________________________________CanadianPoliceAssociation1
Introduction
 
Economies
 
throughout
 
the
 
world
 
are
 
struggling.
 
All
 
levels
 
of 
 
Canadian
 
government
 
are
 
trying
 
to
 
find
 
areas
 
to
 
cut
 
back
 
spending.
 
Given
 
the
 
recent
 
years
 
of 
 
reported
 
declining
 
crime
 
rates
 
in
 
Canada,
 
politicians
 
and
 
citizens
 
alike
 
may
 
feel
 
that
 
police
 
services
 
are
 
an
 
ideal
 
area
 
to
 
save
 
money
 
without
 
 jeopardizing
 
the
 
quality
 
of 
 
life
 
in
 
communities,
 
particularly
 
after
 
hearing
 
of 
 
studies
 
and
 
politicians
 
that
 
report
 
that
 
the
 
number
 
of 
 
police
 
personnel
 
has
 
no
 
impact
 
on
 
crime
 
rates
 
or
 
are
 
not
 
receiving
 
their
 
share
 
of 
 
budget
 
cutbacks.
 
Unfortunately
 
this
 
notion
 
reflects
 
a
 
very
 
crude
 
understanding
 
of 
 
crime
 
rates
 
and
 
policing
 
in
 
Canada.
 
This
 
report
 
is
 
comprised
 
of 
 
four
 
main
 
sections.
 
The
 
first
 
will
 
look
 
at
 
the
 
crime
 
statistics.
 
Frequently
 
the
 
crime
 
rate
 
and
 
related
 
statistics
 
are
 
raised
 
when
 
police
 
funding
 
is
 
under
 
attack.
 
This
 
section
 
will
 
address
 
factors
 
that
 
can
 
impact
 
the
 
crime
 
rate
 
and
 
how
 
unreported
 
crime
 
ought
 
to
 
be
 
brought
 
into
 
the
 
picture.
 
Also,
 
it
 
will
 
note
 
what
 
trends
 
have
 
been
 
seen
 
between
 
crime
 
and
 
economics
 
right
 
here
 
in
 
Canada.
 
The
 
second
 
section
 
addresses
 
proactive
 
policing
 
initiatives.
 
There
 
has
 
been
 
a
 
large
 
movement
 
in
 
North
 
America
 
to
 
ensure
 
that
 
policing
 
methods
 
are
 
conscientious
 
of 
 
community
 
needs
 
and
 
cooperative
 
with
 
community
 
members.
 
This
 
section
 
discusses
 
how
 
these
 
proactive
 
approaches
 
can
 
be
 
evaluated,
 
the
 
effectiveness
 
of 
 
these
 
measures,
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
the
 
burden
 
that
 
some
 
services
 
find
 
this
 
policing
 
methodology
 
places
 
upon
 
them.
 
The
 
third
 
section
 
specifically
 
addresses
 
why
 
policing
 
today
 
requires
 
sustainable
 
funding,
 
even
 
in
 
a
 
time
 
of 
 
deficit
 
reduction
 
and
 
fiscal
 
restraint,
 
by
 
looking
 
at
 
the
 
changes
 
policing
 
has
 
undergone
 
over
 
time
 
and
 
the
 
implications
 
that
 
external
 
factors
 
have
 
had
 
on
 
police
 
throughout
 
Canada.
 
The
 
final
 
section
 
looks
 
specifically
 
at
 
key
 
survey
 
results
 
pertaining
 
to
 
changes
 
in
 
policing
 
that
 
officers
 
and
 
civilians
 
have
 
witnessed
 
throughout
 
their
 
careers
 
from
 
a
 
recent
 
member
 
survey.
 
Pertinent
 
survey
 
comments
 
are
 
also
 
interspersed
 
throughout
 
the
 
report.
 
 
____________________________________________________________________________________________________CanadianPoliceAssociation2
Part
 
One:
 
Crime
 
Statistics
 
Official 
 
Crime
 
Rate
 
Let’s
 
first
 
look
 
at
 
what
 
the
 
official
 
crime
 
rate
 
in
 
Canada
 
actually
 
reports.
 
Each
 
year
 
Statistics
 
Canada
 
collects
 
data
 
pertaining
 
to
 
“all
 
criminal
 
incidents
 
known
 
to,
 
and
 
substantiated
 
by,
 
Canadian
 
police
 
services”
 
(Brennan
 
&
 
Dauvergne,
 
2011,
 
2)
 
through
 
the
 
Uniform
 
Crime
 
Reporting
 
(UCR)
 
survey.
 
As
 
this
 
survey
 
has
 
been
 
largely
 
unchanged
 
since
 
1962,
 
it
 
is
 
able
 
to
 
trace
 
trends
 
in
 
Canadian
 
criminal
 
incidents
 
over
 
time.
 
In
 
addition
 
to
 
the
 
crime
 
rate,
 
the
 
Crime
 
Severity
 
Index
 
measures
 
the
 
seriousness
 
of 
 
crime,
 
with
 
the
 
assigned
 
weight
 
of 
 
each
 
crime
 
determined
 
by
 
the
 
average
 
sentences
 
given
 
by
 
criminal
 
courts
 
(Brennan
 
&
 
Dauvergne,
 
2011).
 
In
 
2010,
 
the
 
police
reported
 
crime
 
rate
 
was
 
5%
 
lower
 
than
 
in
 
the
 
previous
 
year,
 
which
 
continues
 
the
 
general
 
decline
 
that
 
has
 
been
 
occurring
 
for
 
past
 
20
 
years.
 
The
 
Crime
 
Severity
 
Index
 
also
 
decreased,
 
falling
 
6%
 
from
 
2010
 
(Statistics
 
Canada,
 
2011c).
 
However,
 
these
 
decreases
 
have
 
not
 
been
 
uniform
 
across
 
Canada,
 
which
 
will
 
be
 
discussed
 
in
 
Part
 
Three.
 
How 
 
unreported 
 
crime
 
relates
 
to
 
crime
 
trends
 
In
 
addition
 
to
 
the
 
annual
 
report
 
on
 
police
reported
 
crime
 
statistics,
 
Statistics
 
Canada
 
also
 
conducts
 
a
 
sample
 
survey
 
called
 
the
 
General
 
Social
 
Survey
 
(GSS)
 
on
 
Victimization
 
every
 
five
 
years
 
with
 
Canadians,
 
15
 
years
 
of 
 
age
 
and
 
older.
 
The
 
most
 
recent
 
GSS
 
was
 
completed
 
in
 
2009
 
and
 
it
 
collected
 
personal
 
accounts
 
of 
 
criminal
 
victimization
 
for
 
eight
 
criminal
 
incidents.
 
The
 
eight
 
types
 
of 
 
crime
 
were:
 
sexual
 
assault,
 
robbery,
 
physical
 
assault,
 
break
 
and
 
enter,
 
motor
 
vehicle/parts
 
theft,
 
theft
 
of 
 
household
 
property,
 
vandalism
 
and
 
theft
 
of 
 
personal
 
property
 
(Perreault
 
&
 
Brennan,
 
2010).
 
While
 
the
 
GSS
 
collects
 
information
 
pertaining
 
to
 
criminal
 
incidents
 
not
 
captured
 
by
 
the
 
UCR
 
survey
 
due
 
to
 
the
 
inclusion
 
of 
 
victims
 
who
 
chose
 
not
 
to
 
go
 
forward
 
to
 
police,
 
the
 
information
 
is
 
only
 
as
 
accurate
 
in
 
so
 
far
 
as
 
the
 
participant’s
 
ability
 
to
 
recount
 
and
 
define
 
their
 
victimization
 
accurately.
 
The
 
2009
 
GSS
 
found
 
that
 
there
 
was
 
a
 
decline
 
in
 
the
 
number
 
of 
 
offences
 
reported
 
to
 
police.
 
In
 
1993,
 
42%
 
of 
 
incidents
 
were
 
reported
 
to
 
police,
 
in
 
1999,
 
37%
 
of 
 
participants
 
who
 
stated
 
that
 
they
 
had
 
been
 
victimized
 
said
 
they
 
went
 
to
 
the
 
police
 
about
 
the
 
incident,
 
in
 
2004
 
the
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->