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Tenses

Tenses

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Published by jellenche

Pregled engleskih glagolskih vremena, sve u jednom :)

Pregled engleskih glagolskih vremena, sve u jednom :)

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Published by: jellenche on Dec 05, 2012
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01/23/2014

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Tenses
Classification based on Time Frame:
- present
 
- past
 
- future
 
Classification based on Aspect (refers to the nature of the action described by the verb):
- Simple or Indefinite
(to describe an action but don't state whether the action is finished)
- Continuous or Progressive
(to describe an unfinished action)
- Perfect or Complete
(to describe a finished action)Dve odlike perfect vremena:-
uvek govore o radnji koja se završila pre nekog određenog momenta u sadašnjosti ili prošlosti, i koja ćese završiti pre nekog određenog momenta u budućnosti, tj. pre neke vremenske situacije.
 -
uvek označavaju radnju koja je završena u neodređenoj prošlosti, ali
 
čije dešavanje ima rezultate
koji se
osećaju u sadašnjosti.
 U
srpskom imamo svršene i nesvršene glagole, a u engleskom posebna vremena.
 - Perfect Continuous (to describe an action which was in progress and then finished)
(I) PRESENT
Expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccuring action/situation that exists only now.It can also represent a widespread truth.- Present Simple- Present Continuous (Progressive)- Present Perfect- Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive)
Present Simple Tense
(if sentences type 1)It is used to decribe an action, an event or a condition that is occuring in the present, at the moment ofspeaking or writing, taking place once, several times or never.Form:S + V -s/-es (3-rd person Sg.)Izgovor nastavka:1)
/s/ posle bezvučnih suglasnika (talks, stops,
works)2)
/z/ posle zvučnih suglasnika i vokala (learns, stays, decides)
 3) /iz/ posle
vokala i zvučnih suglasnika (watches, faces, wages)
 Pisanje nastavka (ortographic changes):1) -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x > -es (brushes, watches, kisses, waxes)2) -o > -oes (do-es, go-es)
 
3) consonant + -y > -ies (studies, marries)4) vocal + -y > -ys (stays, plays)Negative form:S + do/does + NOT + V(infinitive) > contractive form: don't/doesn't
He doesn't always come on time.They do not like the cats.
Interrogative form:1) yes/no questions - inversiondo/does + S + V(infinitive) ?
Do you speak French? - Yes, I do./No, I don't.
 2) wh- questionsWH- + do/does + S + V(infinitive) ?WHO + V(infinitive) + S ?
Where does he live?Who makes excellent cakes?Who(m) do you meet every day at the station?
Adverbial phrases:always, often, usually, generally, sometimes, normally, every (day, week, month, time...),in (September, time...), on (Sundays, time...), normally, seldomUsage:
1) neka uobičajena
radnja
u sadašnjosti
(habitual or repeated actions and states in present)
I get up at seven every morning.
2) radnja koja se ponavlja u
širem vremenskom periodu
(permanent actions and states in present)
She studies English.
3) apsolutna
, opšte
poznata
istina, zakon, činjenica
 (fact of permanent nature, permanent state, a general truth = law, scientific facts)
Summer follows spring.The sun rises in the east.
4) izražava karakteristike subjekta
(a characteristic of the subject)
She's a good friend (beautiful girl).
5
) izražava uputstva, usmerenja:
recepti, zadaci... (for instructions, directions)
You put milk and then add some sugar.
6) za davanje komentara (utakmice i slično)
(for sports commentaries)
 Jordan passes the ball to Divac...
7) za sli
kovito prikazivanje neke prošle radnje (bajke, priče)
-
pripovedački prezent!
 (for vivid representation of some past action)
"Hannibal takes his army..."
8) izražava radnju koja će se desiti u budućnosti kao sastavni deo šireg utvrđenog plana
 
 
(a planned future action or event set by a timetable/schedule - future reference, near futurity)
The train arrives at six o'clock. > glagoli kretanjaThe concert begins at eight tomorrow.She leaves tonight.
Postoje neki glagoli koji imaju samo Present Simple - glagoli stanja (stative verbs) - sami ne mogu da
izražavaju trajnu radnju:
jedino sa predlozima to mogu:- feelings (prefer, like, hate, love, long, envy)- thinking (think, believe, understand, know) think ABOUT, OF- possession (have, own, possess)- perception (hear, see, sound, look, smell, taste) see OFF- being & appearing (be, seem, appear, look)
Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense
It is used to emphasize the continuing nature of an act, event or a condition.Form:S + am/are/is + V-ing (Present Participle)Pisanje nastavka (ortographic changes):1) jedn
osložni glagoli koji se završavaju na suglasnik
udvajaju taj suglasnik pre nastavka(putting, sitting, swimming, hopping, nodding, hitting, getting, running, winning)2) -e + -ing > -ing (using, writing, taking, making)3) -ie + -ing > -ying (lie>lying, dying)Negative form:S + am/are/is + NOT + V-ing > contractive forms: aren't/isn'tInterrogative form:1) yes/no questions - inversionam/are/is + S + V-ing?2) wh- questionsWH- + am/are/is + S + V-ingAdverbial phrases:now, just now, right now, at the moment, at present, all this (morning)Usage:1) radnja koj
a se dešava u trenutku
govora (momentary action, in progress at the moment of speaking)
We are sitting in the classroom.She is sleeping in her favorite bed.I think she's having lunch.
2)
za radnju koja ne mora obavezno da se dešava u trenut
ku govora(for actions not neccessarily happening at the moment of speaking)
He is writing another novel.

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