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Switching Regulator Basics - 1

Switching Regulator Basics - 1

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Published by Utpal
Basics of Switching regulators and their operation.
Basics of Switching regulators and their operation.

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Published by: Utpal on Feb 02, 2009
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03/09/2011

 
Switching Regulator Basics
 
By Mike Martell
 
N1HFX
 
Although most power supplies used in amateur shacks are of the linear regulator type, an increasingnumber of switching power supplies have become available to the amateur. For most amateurs theswitching regulator is still somewhat of a mystery. One might wonder why we even bother with thesepower supplies, when the existing linear types work just fine. The primary advantage of a switchingregulator is very high efficiency, a lot less heat and smaller size.
 
To understand how theseblack boxes work lets take alook at a traditional linearregulator at right. As we seein the diagram, the linearregulator is really nothingmore than a variableresistor. The resistance ofthe regulator varies inaccordance with the loadresulting in a constantoutput voltage
 
The primary filter capacitor is placed on the input to the regulator to help filter out the 60 cycle ripple.The linear regulator does an excellent job but not without cost. For example, if the output voltage is12 volts and the input voltage is 24 volts then we must drop 12 volts across the regulator. At outputcurrents of 10 amps this translates into 120 watts (12 volts times 10 amps) of heat energy that theregulator must dissipate. Is it any wonder why we have to use those massive heat sinks? As we cansee this results in a mere 50% efficiency for the linear regulator and a lot of wasted power which isnormally transformed into heat.
 
Now lets take a look at avery basic switchingregulator at right.As we see can see, theswitching regulator is reallynothing more than just asimple switch. This switchgoes on and off at a fixedrate usually between 50Khzto 100Khz as set by thecircuit.The time that the switch remains closed during each switch cycle is varied to maintain a constantoutput voltage. Notice that the primary filter capacitor is on the output of the regulator and not theinput. As is apparent, the switching regulator is much more efficient than the linear regulatorachieving efficiencies as high as 80% to 95% in some circuits. The obvious result is smaller heatsinks, less heat and smaller overall size of the power supply.The previous diagram is really an over simplification of a switching regulator circuit. An actualswitching regulator circuit more closely resembles the circuit below:
 
 
 
As we see above the switching regulator appears to have a few more components than a linearregulator. Diode D1 and Inductor L1 play a very specific role in this circuit and are found in almostevery switching regulator. First, diode D1 has to be a Schottky or other very fast switching diode. A1N4001 just won't switch fast enough in this circuit. Inductor L1 must be a type of core that does notsaturate under high currents. Capacitor C1 is normally a low ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance)type.To understand the action of D1 and L1, lets look at what happens when S1 is closed as indicatedbelow:
 
As we see above, L1, which tends to oppose the rising current, begins to generate anelectromagnetic field in its core. Notice that diode D1 is reversed biased and is essentially an opencircuit at this point. Now lets take a look at what happens when S1 opens below:
 
As we see in this diagram the electromagnetic field that was built up in L1 is now discharging andgenerating a current in the reverse polarity. As a result, D1 is now conducting and will continue untilthe field in L1 is diminished. This action is similar to the charging and discharging of capacitor C1.The use of this inductor/diode combination gives us even more efficiency and augments the filtering

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