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Common Emitter Amplifier

Common Emitter Amplifier

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Published by: Utpal on Feb 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/10/2014

 
BJT Common Emitter Amplifier
David Baird2002 Nov 4
1 Intro
I intend to build a two stage BJT common emitter amplifier. Here are my design constraints:Accept a source resistance of 10
k
Ω and voltage of 40
mV 
 p
 p
Drive a 2
k
Ω loadHave a gain near 200
2 Setup
David BairdLab 9, Final CircuitEE321xcircuit Drawing5.6k10k22k10
µ
F22k1k2k2k82
10k2N39042x 2N3906V
BB1
V
CC1
V
EE1
V
CC2
V
EE2
V
i
V
o
.4-.6mA10
µ
F10
µ
F100
µ
F.47
µ
F-4.7V+15V-15V4V-5.4V5.4V4.7V4mAZ
IN
Z
OUT
R
ee1
R
CC1
R
ee2
C1C2C3C4C5R
e1
=25mV/.5mA = 50
R
e2
=25mV/4.5mA = 5.56
R
s
R
CC2
I
EE1
I
EE2
-7V
Figure 1: BJT amplifier with theoretical DC bias valuesFigure 1 shows the setup I used. I used current sources to greatly simplify the biasing of thetransistors. The first BJT stage has a gain of about 20 and the second has a gain of about 10. Thefirst stage input is bootstrapped. The goal of this is to make the resistor divider bias disappearat high frequency so that the signal source only sees the (
β 
+ 1)(
r
e
+
R
ee
), which should be muchlarger than
R
s
= 10
k
Ω. The second BJT stage uses a darlington to unload the first stage. Most of my calculations assume the input impedance to the transistor is negligible.1
 
-15V+15V100k22k 3.9k4.7k22k470
-12.3V-13V.51mA12.4V13.1V4mA
Figure 2: Current sources used in the amplifierAll the capacitors form high pass filters with a 3dB point at 20Hz or less. The following tableshows the R and C values, and the 3dB frequency for each capacitor:Capacitor R [] C [
µF 
]
3
dB
[Hz]C1
>
100k .47
<
3.4C2 3k 10 5.3C3 1k 10 16C4 82 100 19C5 4k (?) 10 4.0The emitter bypassing required the largest capacitors, as you can see, because they had thesmallest source resistances.The amplifier gains are determined approximately by
R
cc
/
(
R
ee
+
R
e
). This gives stages 1 and2 gains of 22
k/
(1
k
+ 50) = 21 and 1
k/
(82 + 5
.
6) = 11
.
4. The composite gain should then be21
·
11
.
4 = 239. ...so, the gain is a little greater than 200.
3 Data
3.1 DC values
Honestly, the actual values were so close to my expected values that I didn’t really care to investi-gate the exact reasons for deviation.2
 
Parameter Expected Actual Unit
sup
+
15 14.86 V
sup
-15 -14.82 V
BB
1
-4.7 -4.7 V
CC 
1
4 4.12 V
EE 
1
-5.4 -5.25 V
CC 
2
-7 -6.64 V
EE 
2
5.4 5.35 V
EE 
1
.51 .50 mA
EE 
2
4 4.0 mA
3.2 AC values
Parameter Comment Expected Actual Unit
s p-p
f=10kHz 45.6 mV
i p-p
f=10kHz 35.2 mV
ee1 p-p
f=10kHz .840 V
o p-p
f=10kHz 8.24 V
A
v
1
21 23.9 -
A
v
2
11.4 9.81 -
A
v
op
 p
/V 
ip
 p
239 234 -
AlternateA
v
o
/V 
s
181 -
3.3 AC gains
[Hz]
s
[mV]
i
[mV]
o
[V]
A
v
=
o
/V 
i
o
/V 
s
100 40 36 7.4 206 1851k 40 36 7.76 216 19410k 40 36 8.24 229 206
3.4 AC Impedances
Figure 3 shows the setups I used to measure
IN 
and
OU
. To measure
IN 
, I kept addingresistance to the input until the output decreased by a factor of 2. At this point, the total inputresistance must be equal to the resistance looking into the amplifier. The process for finding
OU
is similar: decrease output resistance until the output voltage decreases by a factor of two. Thisresistance must then be the resistance looking into the output of the amplifier.
IN 
is the only value that deviated much from what I had expected. I’m not totally sure why,but I would guess that the bootstrap I made isn’t working as well as expected. I expect the ACresistance looking into the base of the BJT should be over 100kΩ, which means the AC resistanceof the bootstrap must be around 150kΩ (if base=150kΩ) in order for
IN 
= 76
k
Ω. Then again,considering that the bias network goes from about 10k at DC to 150k (factor of 15) at AC makesbootstrapping a pretty neat trick!
R
L
[
k
Ω]
o
[
 p
 p
]inf 15.22.0 7.681.0 5.163

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