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Berklee - Jazz Composition

Berklee - Jazz Composition

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Published by: kuaxark on Dec 06, 2012
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12/14/2012

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53
Secondary dominant progressions (
V7
 /II–7,
V7
 /III–7,
V7/IV
,
V7/V
,
V7
 /VI–7,
V7
 /VII–7(
%
5)) create a secondary level of harmonic gravity. In addition, each of these
V7
chords has a substitute dominant available to take its place at the whim of theperformer or composer/arranger. The substitute dominant contains the same tritone asthe “real” dominant and acts as an alias for it. The root of a substitute dominant chord isan augmented fourth (or its equivalent, the diminished fifth) away from the root of the“real” dominant chord (e.g. D
%
7 is the substitute dominant for G7 in the key of C major.Conversely, G7 is the substitute dominant for D
%
7 in the key of G
%
major.) Dominantresolution produces root motion down a perfect fifth to the target chord. Substitutedominant resolution produces root motion down a half step to the target chord.Passing diminished chords move up by half step between I and II–7, between II–7 andIII–7, between IVMaj7 and V7, and between V7 and VI–7. They mimic secondarydominants because of the common tones that are shared.Traditional practice in jazz harmony allows the placement of the related II–7 chordbefore any dominant seventh chord. The related II–7 chord comes from the same “keyof the moment” as the V7. Therefore D–7 is the related II–7 of G7 regardless of whereit occurs in a progression. E
%
–7 is the related II–7 of A
%
7, F
#
-7 is the related II–7 of B7,and so on. Related II–7 chords are often used before substitute dominants as well.The following chart summarizes the above in the key of C major. The tune “Catch Me If You Can” on the following page utilizes a variety of tonal progressions.
A–7D–7
DominantPrimaryTONICV7/II Maj7CMaj7
D7
G7
mimicsA7(9)
I7
C7
Subdominant
B–7E–7
V7/II–7AliasII–7D–7
E7
A7
II7
mimicsB7(9)D7
Secondary dominants, their substitutes, and related II–7s
Harmonic Universe in C Major
C–7F–7
V7/III–7TonicAliasPassing DiminishedIII–7E–7
B7
F7
SUBDOMINANT
D–7G–7
IV Maj7V7/IVFMaj7
G7
C7
IV7
mimicsD7(9)F7
E–7A–7
DOMINANTV7/VV7G7
A7
D7
mimics
V7
E7(9)G7
F–7B–7
V7/VI–7TonicAliasVI–7A–7
B7
E7
V7/VII–7(5)
G–7C–7
DominantVII–7(5)AliasB7(5)
F7
C7
CHAPTER2 HARMONIC CONSIDERATIONS

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