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Indian Journal of Dental Sciences.December 2011 Issue:5, Vol.:3 All rights are reserved
Original Article
of Dental Sciences
Indian Journal
E ISSN NO. 2231-2293P ISSN NO. 0976-4003
Katta Sridhar Chowdary
Address For Correspondence:
Dr.Katta Sridhar Chowdary M.D.S.Professor, Department of Prosthodontics,Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences & Research Centre, HyderabadCell : 9849988815E-Mail : kschowdary@live.in
Date of Submission :
1November 2010
Date of Acceptance :
12January 2011
AbstractObjectives of the study:
To study the marginal fit of artificial crowns made with two base metal alloys.To find out the effect of die-spacers on the fit of base metal alloy crowns. To evaluate comparatively theeffect of number of coats of die-spacers with respect to marginal fit of crowns made with two base metalalloys.
Materials and methods:
For each alloy material 20 specimens were made. A standardized die wasprepared and impressions were made with polyether elastomeric impression material and dies weremade with die stone. Wax patters were made on the dies with varying coats of die spacer. The waxpatters were invested and castings were made with 20 specimens using Ni-Cr alloy and 20 specimensusing Co-Cr alloy. The marginal fit of crowns were evaluated with optical micro scope.
The mean and standard deviation of the marginal fit was calculated for castings made with Ni-Cr alloy and castings made with Co-Cr alloy. It was found that maximum mean was with castings madewith Co-Cr alloy and minimum with castings made with Ni-Cr alloy.
Co-Cr alloy copings had lesser marginal fit when compared with copings of Ni-Cr alloy.Use of paint-on die spacer has the potential to ease insertion of coping without significantly affecting itsmarginal fit
Key Words
Master die, Stone die, Die-spacer, Inlay wax, Castings, Copings, marginal fit,
for the cement allows the casting to beseated completely during cementation. If theavailable space for cement is too narrow, thecasting will not seat properly.Conversely, If the available space for cement is too wide, casting will be too looseon the prepared tooth, resulting in loss of resistance. Spacer alters the dimension of the die by coating the occlusal surface andvertical axial walls with a thin layer of rapidly drying paint. Seating of the crowndepends on the thickness of the coating,which in turn depends on the number of coats.
Materials and Methods
The study was done to evaluate the marginalfit of cast metal crowns made with two basemetal alloys with varying coats of diespacers.Two base metal alloys have been selectedfor this study.
(Photo - 1 & 2)Introduction
Base metal alloys have been in use inProsthodontics as an alternative totraditional high gold content alloys. Thesealloys attracted the attention of the dental professionals due to their superior mechanical properties as well as low cost.The success of a cast metal frame work depends not only on selection of suitablematerial for investing procedure but also onmeticulous laboratory proceduresundertaken. Marginal fit of coping/crown isvery important factor for the success of  prosthesis/restoration to follow. Marginalintegrity ranks high for the success of arestoration because good marginal fit isessential for maintaining gingival health and protecting the tooth from physical,chemical, thermal and bacterial injuries. Toobtain this, there must be a band of closeadaptation of casting with the prepared toothat the margins of tooth preparation. At thesame time, a space must exist between theinternal surface of the casting and the prepared surface of the tooth to provideroom for the luting agent. This space meant
4©Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. (December 2011 Issue:5, Vol.:3) All rights are reserved.
M.D.S., Professor, Department of Prosthodontics,
Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental
Sciences & Research Centre, Hyderabad
Evaluation Of Marginal Fit Of Castings Made WithNickel-chromium And Cobalt-chromium AlloysUsing Varying Coats Of Die Spacers - ALaboratory Study
Photo-1 Nickel - Chromium AlloyPhoto-2 Cobalt - Chromium Alloy
 Nickel-Chromium alloys were designatedas
Group A
Cobalt-Chromium alloys were designatedas
Group B
All the alloy pellets were selected from thesame batch to avoid variation in the valuesobtained.A standardized brass die was machined tothe following measurements: 6mm height,8mm gingival diameter, 6 degree taper and1mm chamfer margin to simulate the singletooth prepared for cast metal crown.The brass master die was duplicated with polyether impression material (Impregum-F, ESPE, and Germany) using custom madetrays and these were poured with type IVimproved stone (Ultra rock, India).
(Photo-3, 4&5)
A total number of 40 dies were prepared. Twenty samples each were prepared with group A and group B thus atotal number of forty samples were preparedfor this study.In each group, samples were divided intofour sub groups. Five dies for 
Group A
andfive dies for 
Group B
were chosen for eachcoat of die spacer and thus dies with 1 to 4coats were prepared. Die surfaces weretreated with one coat of die hardener (George taub products, N.J., U.S.A.) to preserve the integrity of stone margin duringthe preparation of wax pattern.
Application of die spacer:
The stone dies were treated with die spacer which was painted upon the dies. A band of 1mm in width at the cervical margin was leftunpainted. Die spacer coating was paintedon all dies.5 dies for group A and 5 dies for group B were chosen for each coat and thus1 to 4 coats of spacer samples were prepared.
(Photo-6&7)Preparation of wax pattern:
The finish line of the die was highlightedwith sharp, bright red pencil. Die lubricant(True release, George taub Ltd., U.S.A.) wasapplied with a clean brush. Wax patterns
5©Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. (December 2011 Issue:5, Vol.:3) All rights are reserved.
Photo - 3 Brass Master Dieand Custom TraysPhoto - 4 Polyether Impression MaterialPhoto - 5 Die StonePhoto-6 Die Spacer And LubricantPhoto-7 Dies With Spacer Coats
   1  m  m
Preparation of Stone Die
Number Of Coats Of Die Spacer 1234Sample In Group A5A
Sample In Group B5B
were made by soft inlay wax (GC inlay wax,Japan) over the stone dies.
(Photo-8)Investing and casting:
Each pattern was immediately invested after marginal refinement to minimize distortion.The lost-wax casting technique was used.The wax patterns were invested in graphitefree, phosphate bonded investment material(Super vest, Matech Ltd., U.S.A.).
Burnout of the wax patterns were carriedout.
A separate ceramic crucible was used for melting each alloy and casting was carriedout in an induction castingmachine(Fornex,Bego,Germany).Thecastings were retrieved, sand blasted, allsprues were removed with thincarborundum disk and inspected withmagnifying glass.Each casting was seated on its respectivestone die and secured with a spring-loadedcaliper exerting uniform for all samplesduring microscopic measurements. Opticalmicroscope was used with × 100magnification to measure the gap betweenthe margins of the casting and marginalfinish line of the die.
A total number of 40 crowns were made outof which 20 were made with Ni-Cr alloy and20 were with Co-Cr alloy. The marginal fitwas determined at four predetermined siteson the dies. Hence, there were twentyreadings for different coats for Ni-Cr crowns(Group A)
and twenty readingsfor Co-Cr crowns (Group B)
The mean and standard deviation of themarginal fit was calculated. It was found thatmaximum mean was with Co-Cr alloy group(59.82±23.5) and minimum with Ni-Cr alloy group (41.72±23.17).
(Table III).
The mean and standard deviation of marginal fit, maximum mean was with four coats followed by two coats, followed bythree coats and minimum with one coat.
The average marginal fit for different coatsfor Ni-Cr (Group A) varies, with maximumdiscrepancy of 47.25µ for a die with twocoats and minimum marginal discrepancy of 37.55µ for die with three coats.The average marginal fit for different coatsof Co-Cr (Group B) varies, with maximumdiscrepancy of 75.90µ for a die with four coats and minimum marginal discrepancy of 46µ for die with one coat.
6©Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. (December 2011 Issue:5, Vol.:3) All rights are reserved.
Photo-9 Phosphate BondedInvestment MaterialPhoto-10 Burnout FurnaceNickel - Chromium Alloy Casting withMaximum Marginal Fit (x 100)Cobalt - Chromium Alloy Castingwith Maximum Marginal Fit (x 100)Photo-11 PhotomicrographPhoto-8 Inlay Wax & Pkt Instruments
Coat123411850155717901160139015591085125740245013355042105040271024549501085404558100153259852642603854530584550686040469055424810030444474045283516252835122418452027519353418 Average42.3547.2537.5539.75Sample (Co-Cr)
Table 1 - Marginal Fit Values Of Samples Made With Ni-Cr (Group A)
   F   I   T   I   N   M   I   C   R   O   M   E   T   E   R   S

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