Random numbers refers to” a sequence of independent numbers with a specifieddistribution and a specified probability of falling in any given range of value”. As a result, the idealrandom number generator will provide a stream of uniformly distributed, non-deterministic,independent bits over an infinite data set. The mathematical evaluation of randomness is difficult, itis possible to use statistical analysis on sample data sets to detect characteristics that point to“non_randomness”.Random number generation can be divided into two categories:
True random number generation:
With true random number generation the next randomnumber generated is not known, and the sequence of random numbers cannot be generated.
Pseudo random number generation:
With pseudorandom number generation a sequence of random numbers is generated using a known algorithm, and the exact same sequence can beregenerated.For software based systems, it is very desirable to use a pseudorandom number generator to be able to test the software system with a repeatable set of random numbers, soone can re_run a test to the exact same random numbers being used. Also with a pseudorandom number generator that has been formally evaluated, one can be sure of the resultingof sequence numbers.
Security Enhancement By RNGs
The strength of the security mechanism like encryption algorithm is directly proportional to the randomness of the numbers it uses. While many available solutions usecryptically strong algorithms, they start from random seed that are not truly random andunpredictable.Cryptographic applications demand a high level of randomness to maintain the neededlevel of confidentiality and security.The increased randomness of RNG produces random numbers that can increase the strengthof the three major elements of cryptography:
Random numbers are used to authenticate client systems that want access protect information stored on a server.
Random numbers play a critical role in generating cryptographic keys usedfor encrypting and/or decrypting data and thus ensuring that an unauthorized person whointercepts a transaction won’t be able to extract meaningful information.