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A BI-HAMILTONIAN INTEGRABLE TWO COMPONENTGENERALIZATION OF THE THIRD-ORDER BURGERS EQUATION

DARYOUSH TALATI AND REF˙IK TURHAN

Dedicated to Professor Yavuz Nutku who passed away on December 8, 2010.

Abstract.

We announce a new bi-Hamiltonian integrable two-component system admittingthe scalar 3rd-order Burgers equation as a reduction.

1.

Introduction

Bi-Hamiltonian evolutionary equations are those which can be embedded in a Magri scheme

u

t

i

=

F

i

[

u

] = K

G

i

[

u

] = J

G

i

+1

[

u

]

, G

i

= E(

h

i

[

u

])

, i

=

−

1

,

0

,

1

,

2

,

3

,

···

constructed by two compatible Hamiltonian (skew-adjoint, Jacobi identity satisfying) opera-tors J and K. Hamiltonian operators are deﬁned to be compatible if their arbitrary linearcombinations are Hamiltonian operators also. Here the diﬀerential functions

F

i

[

u

] are the(characteristics of) symmetries and the dual objects

G

i

are the conserved gradients which areEuler derivatives E(

h

i

) of the conserved densities

h

i

.Very recently [1], it is rigorously proved that for a given two compatible Hamiltonian oper-ators, construction of partial Magri scheme (

F

i

,G

i

,h

i

),

i

=

−

1

,

0

,

1

,

2

,

···

,N

for some ﬁnite

N

implies existence of remaining inﬁnitely many of them, and therefore integrability of theequations

F

i

in the sense of existence of inﬁnitely many conservation laws.For a given pair of compatible Hamiltonian operators, construction of the Magri scheme isquite a straight forward task to do. The inverse problem of ﬁnding an appropriate compatiblepair of Hamiltonian operators in whose Magri scheme a given system exists, is a nontrivial one.The Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS)[2] system

u

t

v

t

=

−

u

xx

+ 2

u

2

vv

xx

−

2

v

2

u

,

can be considered as a 2-component generalization of the scalar Heat equation (HE) in (1+1)dimensions, since

u

= 0 reduction of the system leaves the scalar HE

v

t

=

v

xx

behind.The second order HE cannot be written as a bi-Hamiltonian equation but the odd-ordermembers

u

t

=

u

(2

n

+1)

x

,

n

= 0

,

1

,

2

,

3

,

···

, where

u

nx

=

∂

n

u∂x

n

, in the (autonomous) symmetryhierarchy

u

t

=

u

nx

, of the HE are bi-Hamiltonian equations as noted recently in[3] and givenin a related variables in which the ﬁrst member (

x

-translation symmetry of the HE) appearsin the Riemann equation form in [4](see Proposition 3.3 in[5]).
Motivated by the observation that the second-order scalar HE, despite not being a bi-Hamiltonian equation, has a bi-Hamiltonian 2-component generalization, i.e. the AKNS system,and that the odd-order HE’s are bi-Hamiltonian, we considered a class of third-order Burgerstype two-component systems for integrability. We shall give the results of our classiﬁcationelsewhere[6]. But here, starting from an example system which is related to a known inte-grable system, we introduce a new completely integrable 3rd-oder Burgers type system whosebi-Hamiltonian structure we constructed too.

1

2 D. TALATI AND R. TURHAN

2.

An example related to a known system

Let us consider the following system

u

t

v

t

=

u

xxx

+ 3

u

xx

u

+ 3

u

2

x

+ 3

u

2

u

x

+

v

xx

+ 2

u

x

vv

xxx

−

3

v

xx

u

+ 6

u

xx

v

+ 3

u

x

v

x

+ 3

u

2

v

x

+ 2

vv

x

,

(1)which reduces to the scalar 3rd-order Burgers equation in

v

= 0. In terms of the new variables(

w,z

) which are deﬁned as

w

=

u

x

, z

=

v

+32

u

2

the above system becomes

w

t

z

t

=

w

xxx

+

z

xxx

+ 2

w

x

z

+ 2

wz

x

z

xxx

−

9

ww

x

+ 6

zw

x

+ 3

wz

x

+ 2

zz

x

.

(2)The transformed system (up to a linear change of variables) is the Karasu (Kalkanlı) equationwhich is obtained in Painlav´e classiﬁcation [7]. A recursion operator is given for the system in[8] and its bi-Hamiltonian structure is constructed by Sergyeyev in [9].
3.

The new system

The new Burgers type 2-component system we introduce here is

u

t

v

t

=

u

xxx

+ 3

u

xx

u

+ 3

u

2

x

+ 3

u

x

u

2

+

v

xx

+

u

x

v

+

uv

x

v

xxx

−

3

v

xx

u

+ 3

u

xx

v

+ 6

uu

x

v

+ 3

u

2

v

x

+ 4

vv

x

.

(3)This system reduces to the 3rd-order Burgers equation by

v

= 0 also. It can be written as abi-Hamiltonian system as given in the following proposition.

Proposition 1.

u

t

v

t

= K

δ

u

δ

v

v

2d

x

= J

δ

u

δ

v

vu

x

+12

u

2

v

+13

v

2

d

x

with the compatible pair of Hamiltonian operators

J =

−

13

D D

2

+ 2

Du

−

D

2

+ 2

uD

4

vD

+ 2

v

x

,

K =

K

1

K

2

K

3

K

4

,

where

K

1

=

−

D

3

+

u

2

D

+

uu

x

−

u

x

D

−

1

u

x

,

K

2

=

D

4

+ 4

uD

3

+ (9

u

x

+ 3

v

+ 5

u

2

)

D

2

+ (7

u

xx

+ 5

v

x

+ 16

uu

x

+ 3

uv

+ 2

u

3

)

D

+(2

u

xxx

+ 6

u

xx

u

+ 6

u

2

x

+ 6

u

2

u

x

+ 2

v

xx

+ 3

u

x

v

+ 2

uv

x

)

−

u

x

D

−

1

v

x

,

K

3

=

−

K

∗

2

,

K

4

= 6

vD

3

+ 9

v

x

D

2

+ (7

v

xx

+ 12

u

x

v

−

12

v

x

u

+ 12

u

2

v

+ 9

v

2

)

D

+(2

v

xxx

−

6

v

xx

u

+ 6

u

xx

v

+ 12

uu

x

v

+ 6

u

2

v

x

+ 9

vv

x

)

−

v

x

D

−

1

v

x

,

and

D

n

=

d

n

d

x

n

,

(

∗

)

denotes the formal adjoint.

A

proof

follows from direct (and tedious) calculation that for arbitrary functions

ξ

(

x

),

η

(

x

)and linear combinations H

λ

= K +

λ

J with constant

λ

, the functional trivectorΨ =

prV

H

λ

ξη

(

ξ η

)

∧

H

λ

ξ η

d

x

vanishes independently from the value of

λ

, where

prV

Q

is the prolongation of the vector ﬁeldwith characteristic

Q

[

u

A BI-HAMILTONIAN INTEGRABLE TWO COMPONENT GENERALIZATION OF ... 3

The ﬁrst few conserved densities of the hierarchy which are obtained ﬁrst by the software in[11], are listed below.

h

−

1

=

uh

0

=

v

2

h

1

=

vu

x

+

12

u

2

v

+

13

v

2

h

2

=

−

2

u

xx

v

x

+

vu

2

x

−

6

uu

x

v

x

+ 3

v

2

u

x

+ 8

u

2

vu

x

−

43

v

2

x

+

u

4

v

+ 2

u

2

v

2

+

79

v

3

Discussion

v

= 0, the Hopf-Cole transform

u

→

u

x

/u

of the system (1) is no more a local evolutionaryequation. With the same transformation, system (3) transforms to a non-polynomial systemhaving

v

= 0 reduction to the scalar 3rd-order HE.Most of the classiﬁed third order systems are generalizations of the KdV equation or equationsrelated to it [12,13, 14,15] and the references therein. System (3) cannot be transformed to
a form having a reduction to KdV or to a related equation without some additional constraintby diﬀerential substitutions.In the scalar case, the Hopf-Cole transformation relating the Heat and the Burgers equationstransforms the conserved gradients of the odd-oder HE’s into some nonlocal objects. But inthe 2-component case, Burgers forms of the systems seems more suitable to be written inHamiltonian form.System generalizations of the Burgers equation are classiﬁed mainly by generalizing the 2nd-order scalar equation[16,17,18, 19, 20, 21]the references therein. They are expected and
turn out to possess symmetries at all orders like their scalar version. However in the systemwe gave here, similar to the other known Magri schemes, the integrable equations are only inodd orders and there are no (local) symmetries with even order. The odd-order scalar Heathierarchy seems an exception to this general rule: The even-order Heat equations persist to bethe symmetries of the odd-order ones, even if the only place we can put them is the position of conserved gradients in the Magri scheme.If a multi-component system is to be named according to the scalar equation it reduces bysome ﬁeld reductions, the Karasu (Kalkanlı) system is not of KdV type since in its originalform (2), it does not reduce to KdV. However the related system (1) we gave here is genuinely
Burgers type because it has a reduction to the 3rd-order scalar Burgers equation without anyextra constraint left.

Acknowledgements

D.T. is supported by TUBITAK PhD Fellowship for Foreign Citizens.

References

[1] A. de Sole and V.G. Kac,

Non-local Hamiltonian Structures and applications to the theory of integrable systems I,

arXiv:1210.1688v1.[2] A.C.Newell, Solitons in mathematics and physics, Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Math-ematics, (1985).[3] A. de Sole, V.G. Kac and M. Wakimoto,

On classiﬁcation of Poisson vertex algebras,

Transform. Groups

14

Hamiltonian structures for systems of hyperbolic conservation laws,

J. Math.Phys.

29

(1988), 1610-1619.[5] D. Talati and R. Turhan,

On a Recently Introduced Fifth Order bi-Hamiltonian Equation and Trivially Related Hamiltonian Operators,

SIGMA

7

(2011), 081, 8 pages.[6] D. Talati and R. Turhan,

A class of 2-component 3rd-order Burgers equations,

in preperation.