In 561, The French Bishop of Uzes made Jews in his diocese tochoose either between baptism or expulsion. In 1182, King Philip Augustusexpels the Jews and takes their realty. In 1242, massive burnings of theJewish Holy Book the Talmud took place. Philip the Fair expelled the Jewsin 1306. Although the Gentiles grew soft and allowed a few Jews to return,these Jews were again forced to leave in 1394. In 1540, Jews were banishedfrom Naples. Some settlements of Jews were allowed to continue inAvignon, Bordeaux, Marseilles (from whence they were forced to vacate in1682) and in part of Alsace.
In 1012, Emperor Henry 11 expels the Jews from Mainz. In1096, the First Crusades transpired. Approximately 12,000 Jews wereexecuted in cities along the Rhine River. Between 1146-1147, the SecondCrusade took place, in which some Jews were killed. In 1298, Germanknight Rindfleisch, was responsible for the deaths of thousands of Jews incentral and southern Germany. In 1510, Jews were expelled fromBrandenburg. On August 23, 1614, Jews were expelled from Frankfurt(shown in picture at the top), which occurred after the riots that VincentFettmilch led on the "Jews Street." Approximately 1,380 Jews were forced toleave via ships. On July 14, 1933, Germany and its allies, who stronglyencouraged Jews to leave their nations, started by stripping east EuropeanJewish immigrants of their citizenship. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws wereenacted, removing citizenship rights to all Jews. Many Jews eventually diedfrom hunger or diseases like typhus while incarcerated for crimes against thestate, often being forced to engage in menial labor, while others may have been executed.
1360 marked the year that Jews were expurgated, though theyreturned later. In 1582, Jews were again banished. Maria Theresa, who wasQueen of Hungary and Bohemia (1717-1789), banished the Jews, bydeclaring: "Henceforth, no Jew, no matter under what name, will be allowedto remain here without my written permission. I know of no other troublesome pest within the state than this race, which impoverishes the people by their fraud, usury and money-lending and commits all deedswhich an honorable man despises. Subsequently, they have to be removedand excluded from here as much as possible."