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Turbocharger Modeling for Automotive Control Applications

Turbocharger Modeling for Automotive Control Applications

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07/22/2014

 
400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A.Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760
SAE TECHNICALPAPER SERIES 
1999-01-0908Turbocharger Modeling for AutomotiveControl Applications
Paul Moraal
Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen
Ilya Kolmanovsky
Ford Research Laboratories
Reprinted From: SI Engine Modeling(SP-1451)International Congress and ExpositionDetroit, MichiganMarch 1-4, 1999
 
The appearance of this ISSN code at the bottom of this page indicates SAE’s consent that copies of thepaper may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition,however, that the copier pay a $7.00 per article copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.Operations Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 for copying beyond that permitted by Sec-tions 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such ascopying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works,or for resale.SAE routinely stocks printed papers for a period of three years following date of publication. Direct yourorders to SAE Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.Quantity reprint rates can be obtained from the Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department.To request permission to reprint a technical paper or permission to use copyrighted SAE publications inother works, contact the SAE Publications Group.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior writtenpermission of the publisher.
ISSN 0148-7191Copyright 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
Positions and opinions advanced in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of SAE. The author is solelyresponsible for the content of the paper. A process is available by which discussions will be printed with the paper if it is published inSAE Transactions. For permission to publish this paper in full or in part, contact the SAE Publications Group.Persons wishing to submit papers to be considered for presentation or publication through SAE should send the manuscript or a 300word abstract of a proposed manuscript to: Secretary, Engineering Meetings Board, SAE.
Printed in USA
All SAE papers, standards, and selected books are abstracted and indexed in the Global Mobility Database 
 
1
1999-01-0908
Turbocharger Modeling for Automotive Control Applications
Paul Moraal
Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen
Ilya Kolmanovsky
Ford Research Laboratories
Copyright © 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
ABSTRACT
Dynamic simulation models of turbocharged Diesel andgasoline engines are increasingly being used for designand initial testing of engine control strategies. The turbo-charger submodel is a critical part of the overall model,but its control-oriented modeling has received limitedattention thus far. Turbocharger performance maps aretypically supplied in table form, however, for inclusion intoengine simulation models this form is not well suited.Standard table interpolation routines are not continuouslydifferentiable, extrapolation is unreliable and the tablerepresentation is not compact. This paper presents anoverview of curve fitting methods for compressor and tur-bine characteristics overcoming these problems. Weinclude some background on compressor and turbinemodeling, limitations to experimental mapping of turbo-chargers, as well as the implications of the compressormodel choice on the overall engine model stiffness andsimulation times.The emphasis in this paper is on compressor flow ratemodeling, since this is both a very challenging problemas well as a crucial part of the overall engine model. Forthe compressor, four different methods, including neuralnetworks, are presented and tested on three differentcompressors in terms of curve fitting accuracy, modelcomplexity, genericity and extrapolation capabilities.Curve fitting methods for turbine characteristics are pre-sented for both a wastegated and a variable geometryturbine.
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Dynamic simulation models of turbocharged Diesel andgasoline engines are increasingly being used for designand initial testing of engine control strategies. The turbo-charger submodel is a critical part of the overall model,but its control-oriented modeling has received limitedattention thus far. A standard approach still appears to beto include the turbocharger performance data in the formof lookup tables directly into the model [6], [12]. However,this form is not ideally suited for use in control-orientedengine models because the standard linear interpolationroutine is not continuously differentiable, sometimes lead-ing to apparent discontinuities in simulations. Further-more, and more seriously, this type of model does notadequately handle operating conditions outside of themapped data range, for example at very low turbochargerrotational speeds.While engine mapping usually covers the entire operatingrange, the situation for the turbocharger unit is different.Generally, it is possible to obtain the performance charac-teristics from the supplier. However, the turbochargercharacteristics are typically only mapped for higher turbospeeds (typically 90000 RPM and up) and pressureratios, whereas the operating range on the engine ex-Figure 1.Typical compressor map. Usually, such acompressor map shows constant speedlinesand constant isentropic efficiency lines. Here,we have omitted the efficiency lines andinstead superimposed the compressor flowrate determined from engine mapping data. Itis readily apparent that the compressormapping data does not cover the operatingrange of the compressor on the engine. Inparticular, low speed and low pressure ratiodata are lacking.
00.050.10.150.20.250.30.3511.21.41.61.822.22.42.62.890000120000140000160000180000Scaled compressor flow parameter
  p  r  e  s  s  u  r  e  r  a   t   i  o
 Compressor mapMeasured engine data 

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