Structural Basis 2. Classification 3. Energy Reserves of Life 4. Basic Metabolic Functions 5. Metabolic Disorders Due to Carbohydrates Deficiency 6. Diabetes Mellitus
Carbohydrates, the prime most of the carbon compounds found in living tissues arebiomacromolecules having a molecular weight of more than thousand Dalton.Structurally, carbohydrates are compound of aldehydes and ketones. Presence of hydroxyl groups gives uniqueness to their structure.
Carbohydrates are structurally classified into three types from the simplestmonosaccharides to the complex polysaccharides.
Classification of carbohydrates starts from the simplest monosaccharides. They can berepresented by the empirical formula of (C – H
. ‘n’ denotes the number of carbonatoms. If a monosaccharide possess 3 carbon atoms (n = 3), it is a triose. Similarly atetrose, pentose, hexose and heptose can be formed with 4, 5, 6 and 7 carbon atomsrespectively.Monosaccharides can be further classified into two types, aldoses and ketoses based ontheir functional groups. Dihydroxyacetone, a triose is a well known example of ketosewhereas glyceraldehyde is an aldose.