The circulatory system plays a major role in eliminating the carbon dioxide formed in thetissues after the process of cellular respiration (Consumption of oxygen bymitochondria). Krebs cycle is also called as Tricarboxylic acid cycle.Tricarboxylic acid cycle (Krebs cycle or Citric acid cycle) is considered as the centralmetabolic pathway and occurs in all aerobic organisms.In presence of oxygen, acetyl-CoA molecule is metabolized into citric acid inside themitochondria and then undergoes a complex series of biological oxidations. This resultsin the production of free hydrogen ions. At this stage in the Krebs cycle, a net result of two ATP molecules is released.
The hydrogen ions then enter a biochemical sequence called oxidative phosphorylation.It is highly efficient in generating energy in presence of oxygen.Oxidative phosphorylation results in 36 molecules of ATP during a sequence of stepsthat combine hydrogen electrons to molecular oxygen to form water. Therefore, eachmolecule of citric acid that enters the Krebs cycle will generate a total of 38 molecules of ATP and finally gets oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO
).Almost all the acetyl groups resulting from food molecules are oxidized into to CO
O. Simultaneously NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) molecule is reduced toNADH.Glucose, the simplest carbohydrate in our body is first metabolized into pyruvic acidand then into acetyl coenzyme A. The breakdown of the glucose molecule forms twomolecules of ATP for energy in the Embden Meyerhof pathway (glycolysis).Similarly, amino acids and some chained fatty acids can also be metabolized intoKrebs intermediates and enter the cycle at a number of points.When oxygen is unavailable to carry out Krebs cycle, the body shifts its energyproduction from the Krebs cycle to glycolysis. Glycolysis is very less efficient whencompared to Krebs cycle.
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Glycolysis results in two molecules of Pyruvate. These molecules are transportedacross both mitochondrial membranes and enter into the matrix.Pyruvate is a three Carbon molecule and a CO
is removed from the Pyruvate (3C),resulting it as a 2C molecule. This 2C molecule enters the formal phase of the CitricAcid Cycle. The 2C molecule combines with coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA (2C).Coenzyme A then attaches the 2C molecule to an oxaloacetate (4C), to form Citrate(6C).2C + 4C