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Properties of a Triangle

Properties of a Triangle

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 02, 2009
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06/26/2013

 
 
Properties of a Triangle
1. Angle Sum Property:
The sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangleis
180
o
. Let us prove this property
Proof:
Let PQR be any triangle. Draw a line
 AB
suur
parallel to
QR
, passing through P. Markthe angles as shown in figure 4-13.Now,
4 2
=
(Alternate angles)
5 3
=
(Alternate angles)
1 3 1 4 5 180
+∠+∠ =∠ +∠ +∠ =
o
Therefore
(Linearity property)Therefore, Sum of the angles of a triangle is
180
o
(Two right angles). Henceproved.
2. Exterior Angle Property:
In a triangle, the measure of an exterior angle equalsthe sum of the measures of the remote interior angles.
 
 
In figure 4-14,
Triangle PQR
is shown. The side QR is extended to S. Now,
PRS
is the exterior angle. With reference to the exterior
PRS
,
PQR
and
 RPQ
are remote interior angles (or opposite interior angles).Let us prove this property
Proof:
Refer to figure 4-14
PRS
or
4
is an exterior angle.We have to prove that
4 1 2
=∠ +∠
 We know that the sum of the angles of a triangle equals
180
o
.In
, 1 2 3 180
+∠ +∠ =
o
Triangle PQR
… (1)Since
3
and
4
form a linear pair
3 4 180
o
∠ +=
… (2)From (1) and (2), we have
3 4 1 2 3
+∠ = ∠ +∠ +∠
 or
4 1 2
=∠ +∠
Hence Proved
 
 Since
4 1 2
=∠ +∠
, this implies that
4 1
>
and
4 2
>
, Therefore, the exteriorangle of a triangle is greater than each remote interior angle.
3. Triangles Inequality:
The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle isgreater than the length of the third side.Let us prove this propertyHere, we have to prove that
PQ PR QR
+ >
,
PQ QR PR
+ >
and
QR PR PQ
+ >
.Extend side QP to S such that PS=PR. Join SR.
Proof:
In
Triangle PQR
, we havePS=PR (By construction)Thus
Triangle PSR
is an isosceles triangle. We know that in an isosceles triangle,angles opposite equal sides are equal.
=
Therefore PSR PRS
… (1)or
PRS PSR
=
(Identity congruence)

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