Collection of samples:
is done in sterilized containers of 230 ml with ground glass stoppers protectedby kraft paper. It is to be ensured that contamination of sample does not take place whatever may besource of sample.
Microbiological Examination of Water:
Microbiological examination offers the most sensitive test for the detection of recent and potentiallydangerous faecal pollution, thereby providing a hygienic assessment of water quality with highsensitivity and specificity. Indicators of human/ animal pollution are used.The organisms which have thus been used as indicators are:
Sulfite reducing clostridia (especially
)Anaerobic bacteria such as bifidobacteria and
are more abundant than coliform organismsin faeces but routine methods for their detection and enumeration are not as yet available hence theseare not used.Faecal streptococci are regularly present in the faeces in varying numbers but their number is fewerthan
and they probably die and disappear at the same rate. Presence of faecal streptococcialong with coliforms in absence of
is also confirmatory of faecal pollution.
is also present in faeces in small numbers. Their spores which can resist chlorinationsurvive for longer times. Thus, the presence of
in natural water suggests that faecalcontamination has occurred and in the absence of coliform organisms suggests that it occurred quitesometimes ago.
Methods of AnalysisDetection of Faecal Streptococci and Detection of Clostridium welchii
provides confirmatoryevidence of feacal contamination.
Subcultures from presumptive positive bottles in coliform test are made into tubes containing 5cc of glucose azide broth and incubated at 45*C. Production of acid in the medium indicates the presence of Stretococci faecalis. When water sample is inoculated in litmus milk and incubated anaerobically at37*C for 5 days, stormy fermentation confirms the presence of Clostridium welchii.
Multiple Tube Method
In this method, the most probable number (MPN) of coliform bacilli present in the water sample canbe determined statistically. Double strength and single strength MacConkey's broth with invertedDurham's tube for indication of gas production are used as media.
Water born diseasesBacterial
CholeraTyphoid feverShigellosisDiarrhoea due to:
RoundwormThreadwormWhipwormHydatid diseaseGuineawormdiseaseFish tapewormSchistosomiasis
Hepatitis AHepatitis ERotavirus diarrhoeaPoliomyelitis