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Microbiology of Water, Milk and Air

Microbiology of Water, Milk and Air

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 02, 2009
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02/20/2014

 
APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
 Microbiology of Water, Milk and Air
Basic Concepts
 
Water is the most important vehicle for a variety of pathogens causing intestinal or systemicinfections, particularly in developing countries because of its contamination with sewage orother excreted material
 
Water is said to be contaminated (polluted) when it contains infective and parasitic agents,poisonous chemical substances, industrial or other wastes or sewage
 
The hazards of water pollution are of two types:
 
Biological hazards - hazards due to infective agents, which may lead to water bornediseases
 
Chemical hazards - hazards due to chemical poisonous substances
 
Faecal contamination of water supplies may lead to water borne-diseases
 
Safe water (potable water) is one that cannot harm the consumer, even when ingested over aprolonged period.
 
Drinking water should not only be safe but also pleasant to drink, i.e. clear, colorless anddevoid of unpleasant taste, smell or appearance.
Bacterial flora of water
Type of Water Flora
Natural
 
Micrococcus
 
Pseudomonas
 
Serratia
 
Flavobacterium
 
Alkaligenes
 
Acinetobacter
 
With soil washed in
 
Bacillus subtilis
 
Bacillus megaterium
 
Bacillus mycoides
 
Enterobacter aerogenes
 With sewage
 
Escherichia coli
 
Streptococcus faecalis
 
Clostridium perfringens
 
Salmonella typhi
Vibrio cholerae
Sewage proper bacteria
 
Proteus vulgaris
 
Clostridium sporogenes
Nocardia
species
 
 
 
Collection of samples: 
is done in sterilized containers of 230 ml with ground glass stoppers protectedby kraft paper. It is to be ensured that contamination of sample does not take place whatever may besource of sample.
Microbiological Examination of Water:
Microbiological examination offers the most sensitive test for the detection of recent and potentiallydangerous faecal pollution, thereby providing a hygienic assessment of water quality with highsensitivity and specificity. Indicators of human/ animal pollution are used.The organisms which have thus been used as indicators are:
o
 
Esch. coli
o
 
Faecal coliforms
o
 
Faecal streptococci
(Strep. faecalis)
o
 
Sulfite reducing clostridia (especially
Clostridium perfringens
)Anaerobic bacteria such as bifidobacteria and
Bacteroides
are more abundant than coliform organismsin faeces but routine methods for their detection and enumeration are not as yet available hence theseare not used.Faecal streptococci are regularly present in the faeces in varying numbers but their number is fewerthan
Esch. coli
and they probably die and disappear at the same rate. Presence of faecal streptococcialong with coliforms in absence of 
Esch. coli
is also confirmatory of faecal pollution.
Cl. perfringens
is also present in faeces in small numbers. Their spores which can resist chlorinationsurvive for longer times. Thus, the presence of 
Cl. perfringens
in natural water suggests that faecalcontamination has occurred and in the absence of coliform organisms suggests that it occurred quitesometimes ago.
Methods of AnalysisDetection of Faecal Streptococci and Detection of Clostridium welchii 
provides confirmatoryevidence of feacal contamination.
 
Subcultures from presumptive positive bottles in coliform test are made into tubes containing 5cc of glucose azide broth and incubated at 45*C. Production of acid in the medium indicates the presence of Stretococci faecalis. When water sample is inoculated in litmus milk and incubated anaerobically at37*C for 5 days, stormy fermentation confirms the presence of Clostridium welchii.
Multiple Tube Method
In this method, the most probable number (MPN) of coliform bacilli present in the water sample canbe determined statistically. Double strength and single strength MacConkey's broth with invertedDurham's tube for indication of gas production are used as media.
Water born diseasesBacterial
CholeraTyphoid feverShigellosisDiarrhoea due to:
Esch. coliYersiniaenterocoliticaCampylobacterfetus
Leptospirosis
Helminthic
RoundwormThreadwormWhipwormHydatid diseaseGuineawormdiseaseFish tapewormSchistosomiasis
Viral
Hepatitis AHepatitis ERotavirus diarrhoeaPoliomyelitis
Protozoal
AmoebiasisGiardiasisBalantidiasis
 
An estimate of colifonn count per 100 ml is made from the tubes/bottles showing positive resultsusing the probability tables of McCrady.The presumptive coliform count is reported as follows:Presumptive coliform count Class
 
O Excellent1-3 Satisfactory4-10 SuspiciousMore than 10 Unsatisfactory
Membrane-Filter (MF) Method
 In this method a measured volume of water is filtered through a membrane which retains the bacteriaon its surface. The membrane is then incubated on a suitable selective medium, allowing the bacteriato reproduce and to form colonies. The number of colonies counted is directly related to thebacteriological content of the water sample being analyzed. This method has not been as extensivelyused as multiple-tube method. It is not suitable for turbid water but may otherwise have severaladvantages
 
Types of bacteria found in milk:
Milk supports the growth of a variety of bacteria including pathogenic oneThe different types of bacteria present in milk are, as follows:
1.
Acid-fonning bacteria, such as
o
 
Streptococcus lactis
o
 
Str. faecalis
o
 
LactobacilliThese ferment lactose, forming lactic acid, and lead to the formation of curd.
2.
Alkali-fonning bacteria, such as
o
 
Alkaligenes
sp.
 
o
 
Achromobacter
o
 
Aerobic spore-forming bacilliThese render the milk alkaline.
3.
Gas-forming bacteria, such as
o
 
Coliform bacteria
o
 
Cl. peifringens
o
 
Cl. butyricum
These produce acid and gas.
4.
Proteolytic bacteria, such as
o
 
Bacillus subtilis
o
 
B. cereus
o
 
Proteus vulgaris
o
 
Staphylococci
o
 
MicrococciThese bacteria are responsible for proteolytic activity.
5.
Inert bacteria, such as
o
 
Achromobacter
o
 
Pathogenic bacteria
o
 
CocciThey do not produce any visible change.
 
Diseases and infections transmitted through milk are:I.
Infections of animals transmitted to man
o
 
Tuberculosis
o
 
Brucellosis
o
 
Streptococcal and staphylococcal infections
o
 
Salmonellosis
o
 
Q fever

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