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mak214soru3

mak214soru3

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Published by: skeletonkey11 on Dec 06, 2012
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05/19/2014

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MS 115b: Fundamentals of Materials Science
Solutions 2 (60pts)
13.2
(10pts) A large thick plate of steel is examined by X-ray methods, and found to contain no detectable cracks.The equipment can detect a single edge-crack of depth
5mm
a
=
or greater. The steel has a fracture toughness0MNm
-3/2
and a yield strength of 500 MNm
-2
. Assuming that the plate contains cracks on the limit of detecdetermine whether the plate will undergo general yield or will fail by fast fracture before general yielding occurs.What is the stress at which fast fracture would occur?
of 4tion,
Î
 
Calculate the stress for failure by (a) general yield and (b) fast fracture.(a) for general yield.
2
500MNm
σ  
=
(b)
2
40319MNm0.005
a
σ  π π  
= = =×
,for fast fracture, assuming that a crack on the limit of detection is present. The plate will fail by fast fracturebefore it fails by general yield.Answer : Failure by fast fracture at 319MNm
-2
 
13.3
(10pts) The fuselage of a passenger aircraft can be considered to be an internally pressurized thin walled tubeof diameter 7 m and wall thickness 3 mm. It is made from aluminum alloy plate with a fracture toughness of 100MNm
-3/2
. At cruising altitude, the internal gauge pressure is 0.06MNm
-2
. Multiple fatigue cracks initiated at ahorizontal row of rivet holes, and linked to form a single long axial through thickness crack in the fuselage. Estimatethe critical length at which this crack will run, resulting in the break-up of the fuselage.
 
Î
 
22
0.06MNm0.57000mm70MNm3mm
 pr 
σ  
× = = =
,
K Y a
σ π  
=
,
 
1
=
σ σ  
 p
223/22
11100MNm0.65m70MNm
a
π σ π  
= = =
 
 Answer : 0.65m.
16.3
(10pts) In order to test the strength of a ceramic, cylindrical specimens of length 25 mm and diameter 5mm areput into axial tension. The tensile stress
σ  
which causes 50 percent of the specimens to break is 120MNm
-2
.Cylindrical ceramic components of length 50 mm and diameter 11
 
mm are required to withstand an axial tensilestress
1
σ  
with a survival probability of 99 percent. Given that
m=5,
use equation (16.7) to determine
1
σ  
.
 
Î
 
0
()exp
m
P
σ  σ  
0
=
,
22220
(11/2)mm50mm9.7(5/2)mm25mm
π  π  
×= =×
 For the test specimens, eqn (16.7) gives
5200
1120MNm()0.5exp1
P
σ  
= = ×
,
( )
2201/5
120MNm129MNmln0.5
σ  
= =
 For the components, eqn (16.7) gives
512
()0.99exp9.7129MNm
P
σ  
= = ×
,
1/512
ln0.99129MNm32.6MNm9.7
σ  
2
= × =
 Answer : 32.6 MNm
-2
 
17.1
(10pts) A component is made of a steel for which . Non-destructive testing by ultrasonicmethods shows that the component contains cracks of up to
3/2
54MNm
=
20.2mm
a
=
in length. Laboratory tests show that thecrack-growth rate under cyclic loading is given by
( )
4
dd
a A  N 
= Δ
 where . The component is subjected to an alternating stress of range
13241
410(MNm)m
 A
= ×
2
180MNm
σ  
Δ =
 about a mean tensile stress of 
σ  
Δ /2
. Given that
K a
σ π  
Δ = Δ
, calculate the number of cycles to failure.Catastrophic failure will occur when
Î
 
-2-2
180MNm54MNm
 f 
a
π  
=
,
0.029m
 f 
a
=
 
Now
( )
4422
d()d
a A K A a N 
σ π  
= Δ = Δ
,
422
11()
dN da A a
σ π  
= ×Δ
,
4231
(4.1410
 B A
σ π  
m
Δ ) = ×
 
0
20630
1101111112.4104.14100.0290.0001
 f
 N a f a f 
dN N da B a B a a
= − = ×= = = ××
 Answer :
6
2.410 cycles
×
 

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