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Pancreas

Pancreas

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Published by Examville.com
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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 03, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
 
PANCREAS
Histological four types of cellsAlpha cells – secrete glucagonBeta cells --- insulinD cells - somatostatinF cells -- pancreatic polypeptide
INSULIN
ACTIONS
1. CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISMANTIGLUCONEOGENIC
 
Increases entry of glucose into skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle smoothmuscles
 
 
Increases peripheral utilization of glucose
 
Increases glycolysis in liver, muscles, adipose tissue
 
Increases synthesis of glycogen2. FAT METABOLISMANTILIPOLYTIC ACTION
 
Increases synthesis of FFA by stimulating lipoprotein lipase
 
Inhibits hormone sensitive lipase
 
3. PROTEIN METABOLISMANABOLIC ACTION
 
Decreases protein breakdown
 
Increases protein synthesis in muscles
 
 MECHANSIMFACILITATED Diffusion by glucose transportersDecrease cAMP formation by inhibiting the activity of adenylyl cyclase activity.
DIABETES MELLITUS
INSULIN deficiency leads to diabetes mellitus
DM I DM II
Predisposing factors
 
Genetic
 
Age more common with increasing age
 
ObesityCLINICAL FEATURES
 
Insulin deficiency leads to
hyperglycemia
due to decreased peripheralutilization of glucose by cells
 
Glycosuria
 
Polyuria
 
Polydipsia
 
Dehydration
 
Loss of weight
 
Loss of resistance to infections
 
 PATHOPHYSISOLOGY
INSULIN DEFICIENCYProtein metabolism carbohydrate metabolism fatmetabolism
 
 
 Increased catabolism hyperglycemia lipolyticeffect
 
 
 Increased amino acids glycosuria Increased FFA
 
 
  NITORGEN LOSS IN URINE polyuria, polydipsia increased
 
 ketogenesisDEHYDRATION
 
 
 Electrotype and water IMBALANCEKETOACIDOSIS
 
 
 
 
 
metabolic acidosis
 DEHYDRATION
 Circulatory collapse
 Hypotension, Renal failure
 COMA
 
 DEATH 

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