Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Arterial Blood Pressure

Arterial Blood Pressure

Ratings: (0)|Views: 96|Likes:
Published by Examville.com
For more FREE Physiology Material visit www.examville.com
For more FREE Physiology Material visit www.examville.com

More info:

Published by: Examville.com on Feb 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/17/2009

 
ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
It is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of a blood vessel, especiallypressure in arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of heart beat andresistance to the flow of blood through vessels.
MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood pressure is measured by
sphygmomanometer
. Sphygmomanometerconsists of a rubber cuff attached by a rubber tube to a compressible handpump or bulb. Another tube attaches to the cuff and to a column of mercuryor pressure dial.The cuff is wrapped around the power part of the upper arm and inflated bysqueezing the bulb. The bulb is squeezed until the blood pressure is raisedup to 200 mm Hg till pulse drops. The pulse is felt in two ways (1) byplacing the stethoscope and/ or (2) by placing the fingers over the radialartery at the wrist. The pressure is slowly lowered by unscrewing the bulbtill the reappearance of the radial pulse.The pressure at which radial pulse restarts or first sound is heardcorresponds to the
systolic pressure
. The pressure is lowered further, whenthe sound becomes faint or disappears; the pressure recorded on the mercurycolumn corresponds to the
diastolic pressure.
FACTORS AFFECTING ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
1.
 
AGE - BP increases with age.2.
 
SEX – In females before menopause, SBP is 5 mm Hg less than thatin males.3.
 
EXERCISE – BP increases after exercise.4.
 
GRAVITY – The pressure in any blood vessel below heart level isincreased and that in any blood vessel above heart level is decreasedby the effect of gravity.5.
 
HEREDITARY – More prone in individuals with family history of hypertension.6.
 
POSTURE – Upon sudden standing, DBP increases. It corrects after 1min. to normal.7.
 
MEALS – SBP rises after meals.
 
 DETERMINANTS OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
Arterial Blood Pressure – Cardiac output x Peripheral ResistanceAny factor altering the cardiac output or peripheral resistance will cause achange in arterial blood pressure.
REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE
There are various mechanisms that exist in human body which regulate thesystemic arterial blood pressure.1.
 
Rapidly acting regulatory mechanisms2.
 
Intermediate acting regulatory mechanisms3.
 
Long acting regulatory mechanisms
1.
 
RAPIDLY ACTING REGULATORY MECHANISMS
They help to maintain blood pressure within normal range and preventsfrom fluctuating to extreme high or low. They act within seconds of BPbecoming abnormal.
VARIOUS REFLEXES INVOLVED
1.
 
Baroreceptor reflexes2.
 
Chemoreceptor reflexes3.
 
CNS Ischaemic response
2. INTERMEDIATE ACTING REGULATORY MECHANISMS
They begin to act within minutes of BP becoming abnormal. They alterthe blood volume and correct any change in BP.MECHANISMS1.
 
Capillary fluid shift mechanisms2.
 
Stress relaxation mechanisms
3. LONG ACTING REGULATORY MECHANISMS
They are slow acting. Act over a period of days to years.a. Direct mechanisms

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->