ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
It is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of a blood vessel, especiallypressure in arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of heart beat andresistance to the flow of blood through vessels.
MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood pressure is measured by
. Sphygmomanometerconsists of a rubber cuff attached by a rubber tube to a compressible handpump or bulb. Another tube attaches to the cuff and to a column of mercuryor pressure dial.The cuff is wrapped around the power part of the upper arm and inflated bysqueezing the bulb. The bulb is squeezed until the blood pressure is raisedup to 200 mm Hg till pulse drops. The pulse is felt in two ways (1) byplacing the stethoscope and/ or (2) by placing the fingers over the radialartery at the wrist. The pressure is slowly lowered by unscrewing the bulbtill the reappearance of the radial pulse.The pressure at which radial pulse restarts or first sound is heardcorresponds to the
. The pressure is lowered further, whenthe sound becomes faint or disappears; the pressure recorded on the mercurycolumn corresponds to the
FACTORS AFFECTING ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
AGE - BP increases with age.2.
SEX – In females before menopause, SBP is 5 mm Hg less than thatin males.3.
EXERCISE – BP increases after exercise.4.
GRAVITY – The pressure in any blood vessel below heart level isincreased and that in any blood vessel above heart level is decreasedby the effect of gravity.5.
HEREDITARY – More prone in individuals with family history of hypertension.6.
POSTURE – Upon sudden standing, DBP increases. It corrects after 1min. to normal.7.
MEALS – SBP rises after meals.