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Gravitational Force

# Gravitational Force

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 03, 2009
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04/01/2011

Card # 10 Gravitational force:
The force of attraction acting between two bodies due to their masses is called theGravitational Force. Gravitational force always acts towards the center of the planet.
Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation:
In the universe all bodies attract each other due to their masses. Force of attractionbetween two bodies is always directly proportional to the product of their masses andinversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.If the masses of the two bodies are m
1
and m
2

The distance between them is dThen the Gravitational force = F m
1
m
2
F 1/ (d
2
)F = (G m
1
m
2
)/d
2
Here G is the universal gravitational constant. G is called universal gravitationalconstant because it remains the same at all places and at all times. G is also independentof shape, size and the nature of the medium between the two bodies.
The nature of Gravitational force:
1) Gravitational force is a mutual interaction force. The force acts along the line joiningthe center of the masses and both the bodies apply the same force on each other.2) It is very less of common bodies, but considerable for heavenly bodies.3) Gravitational force is the weakest force in nature.4) Gravitational force is central and conservative.
Vector form of Gravitational force:
If the force on A by B is = [(Gm
1
m
2
)/r
2
The force on B by A is = [(Gm
1
m
2
)/r
2
Hence = (Gm
1
m
2
)/r
2
]Forces are equal in magnitude but acting in opposite directions.
Gravitational Potential:
Gravitational Potential at any point in the Gravitational field is the amount of work donein bringing a unit mass from infinity to that point. It is always negative as work is doneagainst gravity. It is a scalar quantity.
Gravitational potential = V = - (GM)/r
Gravitational potential
Gravitational Potential energy:

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