Egypt’s new draft constitution
Five — Equality and equal opportunities are established for allcitizens, men and women, without discrimination or nepotism orpreferential treatment, in both rights and duties.Six — The law is the basis of the individual’s freedom and thelegitimacy of power. The state shall succumb to the law. No voiceshall transcend that of the authority of justice. The judiciary shall beindependent and bears the honorable message of protecting theconstitution, establishing justice, and preserving rights and duties.Seven — Upholding national unity is an obligation, and thecornerstone of building a modern Egypt and of the path to progressand development. To that end, the values of tolerance andmoderation shall be spread, and the rights and freedoms of allcitizens shall be protected without discrimination.Eight — Defending the nation is a duty and an honor. Our ArmedForces form a patriotic, professional and neutral national institutionthat does not interfere in political affairs. It is the protective shieldof the country.Nine — Security is a great blessing that falls on the shoulders of police. The police are at the service of the people; their role is toprotect them and enforce the measures of justice. There can be no justice without protection, and no protection without securityinstitutions that respect the rule of law and human dignity.Ten — Arab unity is a call of history and of the future, and ademand of destiny. Such unity is to be reinforced through theintegration and fraternity with countries of the Nile Valley and of theMuslim world, both a natural extension borne out of thedistinctiveness of Egypt’s position on the global map.
Eleven — Egypt’s pioneering intellectual and cultural role isemphasized as it is embodied by a soft power, which has broughtforth, and still does, icons of Egyptian thought, art and creativity, aswell as universities, science centers, linguistic and research centers,the press, the arts, literature and mass media, the national churchand Al-Azhar, with its history as a mainstay of national identity, theArabic language and Islamic Sharia, and as a beacon for moderateenlightened thought.