P p [p]
only in loanwords; merged with <b> for most speakers
Ph ph [f]R r [z /
/ or /
/ in the South; /z/ in the North
S s [s /
now only /s/ is commonly heard
T t [t]
Th th [t
Tr tr [c]
/ in the South (pedantry)
V v [v / j]
/j/ South; /v/ North
X x [s]
evolved from /
Stemming from Portuguese tradition,
have to be written differently beforefront vowels in order to preserve their phonetic value. So before <e>, <ê>, <i> and<y>, we write <gh> and <ngh> instead. E.g.:
It’s common for Northern speakers from the countryside and the working class to mix up <l>and <n>, with <l> becoming <n> far more often then the other way around. This trendis quite stigmatised.
Codas / Ph âm cui
Vietnamese, like most Austroasiatic languages, has fairly restricted syllable codas. Out of the23 consonant letters and digraphs, only 8 can stand in a final position:
c ch m n ng nh p t
/kp/ is allophonic after rounded vowels
ch[k ~ t]
In the North, like final <c>. In the South, like final<t>.
m[m]n[n / ]
/n/ in the North; complicated in the South
/m/ is allophonic after rounded vowels
nh[ ~ n]
<ng> North; <n> South
p[p]t[t ~ k]
/t/ in the North; complicated in the South
All obstruent codas - <c>, <ch>, <p>, <t> - are unreleased. English speakers and speakersof European languages in general have the habit of releasing their voiceless stops verystrongly.
It’s not certain what consonants <ch> and <nh> truly represented at the time the alphabetwas made; those sounds are lost to history. Another theory is that these digraphs were aneffort on the missionaries’ part to compromise between the two groups of dialect.
<ch> and <nh> follows <a>, <ê> and <i> ONLY.