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Gist of Chemistry From NCERT Books

Gist of Chemistry From NCERT Books

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Published by: upscportal.com on Dec 07, 2012
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09/17/2014

 
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© 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM
 
Get Complete Online Coaching Materials in Printed Copy
 
www.upscportal.com
© 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM
 
Get Complete Online Coaching Materials in Printed Copy
Acid
Acids are compounds that contain Hydrogen (Hydrochloric,HCl; Sulphuric, H
2
SO4; Nitric, HNO
3
). However, not allcompounds that contain Hydrogen are acids (Water, H
2
O;Methane, CH
4
). Acids are usually compounds of non metalswith Hydrogen and sometimes Oxygen.Acids can be classified in various ways, depending on thefactors mentioned below:1. Classification Based on the Strength of the acid.2. Classification Based on the Basicity of the Acid.3. Classification Based on the Concentration of the acid.4. Classification Based on the presence of Oxygen.
 
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© 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM
 
Get Complete Online Coaching Materials in Printed Copy
Bases and Alkalis
A Base is a substance that gives OH- ions when dissolved in
water. Bases are usually metal hydroxides (MOH). Examplesinclude Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, Calcium Hydroxide,Ca(OH)
2
. The solution of a base in water is called an alkali.
The strength of a base depends on the concentration of the
hydroxyl ions when it is dissolved in water.
1. Strong Base:
A base that dissociates completely or almostcompletely in water is classified as a strong base. The greater
the number of hydroxyl ions the base produces, the stronger
is the base. Examples: Sodium hydroxide: NaOH, Potassiumhydroxide: KOH, Calcium hydroxide: Ca(OH)
2
.
2. Weak Base:
A base that dissociates in water only partially isknown as a weak base. Examples: Magnesium hydroxide:Mg(OH)
2
, Ammonium hydroxide: NH
4
OH.

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