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GUIDE: Latin American Approaches to Extractive Industry Conflict

GUIDE: Latin American Approaches to Extractive Industry Conflict

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Published by ELLA Programme
The rapid expansion of extractive industries in Latin America is transforming the societies and territories in which it is occurring. This phenomenon has provoked social and environmental conflict, especially involving the rural and indigenous communities that are most immediately affected. How are Latin American countries seeking to mitigate and avoid such conflicts? This Guide reviews the underlying causes and actors involved in extractive industries conflict, then analyses Latin American countries’ responses and policies in recent years. It also assesses the contextual and other factors that have enabled these policies to be implemented and draws out the main lessons to be considered in other regions.
The rapid expansion of extractive industries in Latin America is transforming the societies and territories in which it is occurring. This phenomenon has provoked social and environmental conflict, especially involving the rural and indigenous communities that are most immediately affected. How are Latin American countries seeking to mitigate and avoid such conflicts? This Guide reviews the underlying causes and actors involved in extractive industries conflict, then analyses Latin American countries’ responses and policies in recent years. It also assesses the contextual and other factors that have enabled these policies to be implemented and draws out the main lessons to be considered in other regions.

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Published by: ELLA Programme on Dec 07, 2012
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04/12/2013

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GLLF F_GF: GBMNMKAB CGXGLMYKGNS|GLLF SEGKG: GUS_FBSAXG ANCWRS_AGR FNC BMNHLABS KFNF@GKGNS
6
GLLF Frgf: Gbmnmkab Cgxglmykgns
GLLF Segkg: Gusrfbsaxg Ancwsrag fnc Bmnabs Kfnf`gkgns
@wacg
LFSAN FKG_ABFNFYY_MFBEGR SM GUS_FBSAXGANCWRS_Q BMNHLABSR
Seg rfyac guyfnamn m gusrfbsaxg ancwsrag an Lfsan Fkgrabf asrfnmrkan` seg mbagsag fnc sgrrasmrag an peabe as a mbbwrran`.Sea yegnmkgnmn ef yrmxmdgc mbafl fnc gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnabs,gygbafllq anxmlxan` seg rwrfl fnc anca`gnmw bmkkwnasag sefsfrg kms akkgcafsglq fgbsgc. Emp frg Lfsan Fkgrabfn bmwnsragggdan` sm kasa`fsg fnc fxmac wbe bmnlabs= Sea @wacg rgxagpseg wncgrlqan` bfwg fnc fbsmr anxmlxgc an gusrfbsaxg ancwsragbmnlabs, segn fnflqg Lfsan Fkgrabfn bmwnsrag‑ rgymng fncymlabag an rgbgns qgfr. As flm fgg seg bmnsguswfl fnc msegrfbsmr sefs efxg gnfolgc segg ymlabag sm og akylgkgnsgc fnccrfp mws seg kfan lgmn sm og bmnacgrgc an msegr rg`amn.
RWKKF_Q
Seg anbrgfg an mbafl fnc gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnabsf f rgwls mh seg cgkfnc hmr gusrfbsan` nfswrfl
rgmwrbg ef yrggc Lfsan Fkgrabf smlmmd hmr ngp rgymng sm fccrg segg
bmnabs, `gngrfsan` ansgrgsan`lgmn lgfrngc hmr msegr rg`amn.
BMKKMN Y_MOLGK FNC _GLGXFNBG
Seg guyfnamn m gusrfbsaxg ancwsrq fbsaxasag an seg `lmofl mwse ef sra``grgcf kqrafc m mbafl fnc gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnabs. An Frabf, segrg frg bmnabs mxgrymllwsamn, wbe f mxgr mal bmnsfkanfsamn an seg Na`gr _axgr Cglsf fnc kfll+bflgkanan` bmnsfkanfsamn an Sfnzfnaf. Kmrgmxgr, segrg frg bmnlabs rglfsgc sm lmbfllaxglaemmc cg`rfcfsamn mr mrbgc caylfbgkgns, wbe f an Omspfnf, @efnf, Nfkaoaffnc Sfnzfnaf. Faf a emkg sm mbam+gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnabs an gxgrfl gusrfbsaxgasg, wbe f an Ancmngaf, Yfywf Ngp @wangf, seg Yealayyang fnc Sefalfnc, fnc gxgnsrfnnfsamnfl frkgc bmnabs, f mr gufkylg an Ancaf, frmwnc `mlc kanan`.
6
An Lfsan Fkgrabf, bmnabs fmbafsgc pase gusrfbsaxg ancwsrq cgxglmykgns frg flmpacgyrgfc, an yfrsabwlfr an gusrfbsaxg asg pegrg lmbfl ymywlfsamn efxg rgmrsgc smbmnrmnsfsamn pase seg sfsg mr yraxfsg bmrymrfsamn mxgr lfnc wg, gnxarmnkgnsflbmnsfkanfsamn fnc casraowsamn m rgmwrbg rgxgnwg. Emp sm wncgrsfnc, yrgxgns,fnc kfnf`g bmnabs bgnfram an seg rgflk m gusrfbsaxg ancwsrq guyfnamn a fbmkylgu fnc bmnsgus+ygbab awg Lfsan Fkgrabfn bmwnsrag frg srqan` sm fccrg.
6
Yealayyang Kagrgmr Yfrsngreay, Anb. 29 Fyral ?96?.
. Glgbsrmnabywolabfsamn4 Ngk Ran`e, J. 1 Jfnwfrq?96?.
. G+Ansgrnfsamnfl _glfsamn,glgbsrmnab kf`fzang4 Bemyrf, D. ?999. 
. AG@ Pmrdan` Yfygr ?98.Ansaswsg m Gbmnmkab @rmpse, Cglea.
LGRRMNR LGF_NGC
DGQ
Yfrsabayfsmrq ymlabag fnc kgbefnak
hmr hmsgran` rwrfl cgxglmykgns ylfnnan`frg dgq an bmnabs yrgxgnsamn.Gsfolaean` f srfnyfrgns caflm`wgfnc ng`msafsamn yrmbg a seg mnlq pfqsm kfansfan bmnabs wncgr bmnsrml fncrgfbe mbafllq wsfanfolg f`rggkgns.
Lfsan Fkgrabfn bmwnsrag yrmxg sefs
bmnabs srfnhmrkfsamn a ymaolg anseg gusrfbsaxg ancwsrag.
 
GLLF F_GF: GBMNMKAB CGXGLMYKGNS|GLLF SEGKG: GUS_FBSAXG ANCWRS_AGR FNC BMNHLABS KFNF@GKGNS
?
MXG_XAGP MH SEG LFSAN FKG_ABFN _GRYMNRG
An Lfsan Fkgrabf, seg gbmnmkab ommk rmk rgmwrbggusrfbsamn ef yrmcwbgc fn anbrgfg an seg nwkogr m mbaflfnc gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnlabs, yrakfralq ogspggn gusrfbsaxgbmkyfnag fnc lmbfl bmkkwnasag, wbe f an Fr`gnsanf,Omlaxaf, Bealg, Bmlmkoaf, Gbwfcmr fnc Ygrw. Seg Ygrwxafnbfg a rgyrggnsfsaxg m kfnq bmwnsrag an seg rg`amn, pegrganbrgfan` kanan` yrmcwbsamn ef oggn kgs pase anbrgfan`nwkogr m bmnabs, f seg befrs oglmp emp.
Mpn glfomrfsamn.Rmwrbg: Cfsf rmk seg
%Nfsamnfl Rmbagsq m Kanan`, Ygsrmlgwk fnc Gngr`q! fnc segYgrwxafn Mkowckfn.
Befrs 6: Gusrfbsaxg Anxgskgns fnc _gymrsgc Bmnabs an Ygrw?997+?969
3,7993,9992,7992,999?,799?,9996,9996,7997999?9979?93989596996?9639?998?990?995?991?969
AnxgskgnsBmnabs
   W   R    #   K   a   l   l   a   m   n      N   w   k   o   g   r   m      b   m   n   h   a   b   s   
Gusrfbsaxg Anxgskgns fnc rgymrsgc bmnhabs an Ygrw ?997+?969
WNCG_RSFNCAN@ SEG BFWRGR MH GUS_FBSAXGRGBSM_ BMNHLABSR AN LFSAN FKG_ABF
Sm ogssgr wncgrsfnc Lfsan Fkgrabf‑ gmrs sm kfnf`g asbmnlabs, ars pg yrggns fn fgkgns m seg mwr kfanbfwg m wbe bmnlabs. Seg ars a seg bmnmlacfsamn mf yrakfrq guymrs kmcgl sefs ef sra``grgc f ngp bqblg m`gm`rfyeab guyfnamn m gusrfbsaxg yrmjgbs an seg rg`amn. Seaguyfnamn ef oggn lgc oq f efncwl m gusrfbsaxg bmrymrfsamn,kfanlq yraxfsg+gbsmr an kanan`, fnc ywolab+yraxfsg kau mrsfsg+mpngc an mal fnc `f. Seg `rmpse an gusrfbsaxg fbsaxasagan swrn ef anbrgfgc yrgwrg mn lmbfl, rwrfl fnc anca`gnmwbmkkwnasag‑ rgmwrbg. Bwrrgnslq, bmnbgamn mr gusrfbsaxgyrmjgbs bmxgr xfs frgf m rwrfl lfnc, anblwcan` anca`gnmwsgrrasmrag fnc frgf gs facg mr nfswrfl yrggrxfsamn.Lfsan Fkgrabf a befrfbsgragc oq f bmnsangns+pacg ywe smmygn ngp rmnsagr mr gusrfbsamn.
?
Seg Fncgfn bmwnsrag +Omlaxaf, Bmlmkoaf, Gbwfcmr, Ygrw fnc Xgngzwglf + frg f `mmcgufkylg m seg f``rgaxg guyfnamn m gusrfbsaxg fbsaxasag.An Ygrw, 83 eqcrmbfromn olmbd bmxgr kmrg sefn 09' m segbmwnsrq‑ Fkfzmnafn sgrrasmrq, pase 66 olmbd mxgrlfqan`yrmsgbsgc frgf fnc 75 mxgrlfyyan` anca`gnmw+saslgcbmkkwnasag. An Gbwfcmr, spm+ searc m seg Fkfzmn a zmngc mreqcrmbfromn guyfnamn. An Omlaxaf, 77' m seg nfsamnfl sgrrasmrqa bmnacgrgc sm og zmng mr ymsgnsafl eqcrmbfromn guylmasfsamnsefs ef oggn fa`ngc sm Omlaxaf‑ sfsg+mpngc mal bmkyfnqQYHOmr guylmrfsamn, mxgrlfyyan` nfswrfl yrmsgbsgc frgf fncanca`gnmw sgrrasmrag.
2
 Rgbmnc, seg rg`amn ef lmplq ggn seg gnc m ―mbafl cgfl‑ anpeabe rgmwrbg wg fnc bmnsfkanfsamn pgrg ggn f m+gsoq seg ymasaxg akyfbs m kfaxg lmbfl gkylmqkgns an mkggusrfbsaxg asg.
3
Kmcgrn, lfr`g+bflg gusrfbsaxg yrmjgbs nmpnggc mnlq f rglfsaxglq kfll fnc ea`elq vwflagc lfomwr mrbg,m gusrfbsaxg bmkyfnag nm lmn`gr mgr seg fkg lgxglm lmbfl gkylmqkgns. An seg bfg m mygn+yas kang, peabergvwarg f lfr`gr fkmwns m lmbfl nfswrfl rgmwrbg wbe fpfsgr fnc lfnc, cwg sm segar bflg m yrmcwbsamn,
7
pefs bfngusrfbsaxg bmkyfnag mgr an gubefn`g mr lmbfl rgmwrbgwg= Rmkgsakg bmkyfnag mgr ―cgxglmykgns‑ asgl, ows seaa f rfsegr fkoa`wmw fnc efrc sm wll rgpfrc sefs bfn segnogbmkg fnmsegr mwrbg m sgnamn fnc ymsgnsafl bmnabs.Sea ef kgfns sefs seg mbw m bmnlabs ef easgc rmklfomwr sm gnxarmnkgnsfl bmnbgrn. Pmrdgr‑ wnamn efxg oggnrgylfbgc oq rwrfl mr anca`gnmw bmkkwnasag f yrmsf`mnasm lmbfl bmnabs, anbg nmpfcfq bmkygsasamn a nms mr ogssgrflfrag ows mr lmbfl lfnc fnc pfsgr rgmwrbg.
8
F Ogooan`smnfr`wg, seg gnxarmnkgns ef ogbmkg fn anbrgfan`lq akymrsfnscmkfan m bmnsgnsamn fnc mbafl kmoalafsamn, ogbmkan` omse fxgeablg fnc fn mojgbsaxg m bmnsgnsamw ymlasab, anwgnban` segpfq an peabe ymlasab a mr`fnagc fnc ygrmrkgc.
0
?
NFBLF _gymrs mn seg Fkgrabf 
3?%7! 6?+?9.
2
Rgg kmrg anmrkfsamn an seg
Guylmrfsamn Oaccan` _mwnc Omlaxaf 
 pgoasg.An ?96?, seg Omlaxafn `mxgrnkgns yrmkmsgc fn guylmrfsamn oaccan` rmwnc sm fg seg gnsarg eqcrmbfromn ymsgnsafl m seg bmwnsrq, an lang pase seg ylfnngc fbsamn m seg Eqcrmbfromn 2975 Lfp.
3
Sm lgfrn kmrg fomws emp mbafl labgnbg pf fnc a nmp mosfangc an Lfsan Fkgrabf, gg segGLLF Orag: Hrmk Guyrmyrafsamn sm Rmbafl Labgnbg: Fbbgan` Lfnc mr Gusrfbsaxg Ancwsrag.
7
Gbmnmkab @gm`rfyeq 
0?%?! 618+?67.
8
Cfkmnsg, @. ?995. Seg Srfnnfsamnflazfsamn m seg Kanan` Ancwsrq an Ygrw fnc Omlaxaf. An: Cfkmnsg, @.
Seg Bmnsaswsamn m Ymlasabfl Fbsmr: Ygffns Bmkkwnasag, Kanan` fnc Kmoalazfsamn an Omlaxafn fnc Ygrwxafn Fncg 
. XCK Xgrlf`, Ogrlan.
0
Ogooan`smn, F., Ewkyergq Ogooan`smn, C., Owrq, J. ?969.Hgcgrfsan` fnc Cggncan`: Pfsgr, Sgrrasmrq fnc Gusrfbsamn an seg Fncg. An: Omglgn, _.,@gsbeg, C., @wgxfrf @al, F. %gc.!
Seg Ymlasab m Pfsgr _a`es fnc Acgnsasq an seg Fncg 
. Gfrsebfn, Lmncmn.
 
GLLF F_GF: GBMNMKAB CGXGLMYKGNS|GLLF SEGKG: GUS_FBSAXG ANCWRS_AGR FNC BMNHLABS KFNF@GKGNS
2
Omu 6: Seg Srfnnfsamnflafsamn m Kanan` fncBmnhabs an Omlaxaf fnc Ygrw
Cwran` seg 6159 fnc 6119, seg Omlaxafn fnc Ygrwxafn`mxgrnkgns akylgkgnsgc f grag m kfrdgs+mragnsfsgc srwbswrfl rgmrk an mrcgr sm jwky sfrsseg gbmnmkq. Segg rgmrk fbalasfsgc seg gnsrq mkwlsanfsamnfl bmrymrfsamn ansm seg lmbfl gbmnmkag,pealg fs seg fkg sakg rgcwbgc seg sfsg‑ yrggnbg fskanan` asg, fxmwran` seg akylgkgnsfsamn m bmrymrfsgymlabag ansgfc m ywolab mng.Seg ymlabq yfbdf`g anblwcgc axg dgq rgmrk: 6!yraxfsafsamn m kang, mrg fnc mal cgymas4 ?! sfurgmrk, anblwcan` sfu sfoalafsamn, sfu emlacfq fnc f`gngrfl sfu rgcwbsamn mr anxgskgns4 2! ngp f`rfrafnlg`fl rfkgpmrd fakgc fs anbmrymrfsan` rwrfl fncanca`gnmw lfnc ansm lfnc kfrdgs4 3! cgrg`wlfsamn mlfomwr4 fnc anfllq, 7! ngp gnxarmnkgnsfl fnc mbaflrg`wlfsamn. Sea ngp bgnfram brgfsgc ymlasabflsgnamn anbg mrkfl gusrfbsaxg ancwsrq ―mbafl rwlg‑pgrg befn`gc pasemws ggbsaxg sfsg rg`wlfsamn.Flmn` pase segg rgmrk, bmrymrfsamn ansrmcwbgc ngpcabmwrg fnc bmrymrfsg mbafl rgymnaoalasq %BR_!yrfbsabg f f srfsg`q sm rglgfg mbafl sgnamn pealgfxmacan` gkgr`an` bmnlabs. Sea srfsg`q mbwgckfanlq mn sergg kgbefnak: yfqkgns mr seg wg mlmbfl rgmwrbg4 bmkygnfsamn mr ng`fsaxg akyfbs mnlmbfl laxglaemmc, anblwcan` gnxarmnkgnsfl cg`rfcfsamn4fnc yrmkmsan` lmbfl wsfanfolg cgxglmykgns, peabeakylagc bmkyfnag pmwlc rgylfbg seg yrmsf`mnas rmlgm seg sfsg. Empgxgr, BR_ ef nms lgc sm as guygbsgcmwsbmkg. Bmkyfnag efxg falgc sm wncgrsfnc lmbflbmnbgrn fnc ymlasab fnc segar bmnwlsfsamn yrmbggefxg nms oggn lg`asakfsgc oq lmbfl ymywlfsamn. Pasemwsfcgvwfsg sfsg rg`wlfsamn fnc lmbfl yfrsabayfsamn, BR_ymlabag efxg bgrsfan lakas an yrgxgnsan` bmnabs.
Rmwrbg: Cfkmnsg, @. ?995. Seg Srfnnfsamnflazfsamn m seg Kanan` Ancwsrq anYgrw fnc Omlaxaf. An: Cfkmnsg, @.
Seg Bmnsaswsamn m Ymlasabfl Fbsmr: Ygffns Bmkkwnasag, Kanan` fnc Kmoalazfsamn an Omlaxafn fnc Ygrwxafn Fncg 
. XCKXgrlf`, Ogrlan.
Searc, caf`rggkgns fomws emp sm casraowsg fnc wg seg ew`grgxgnwg `gngrfsgc oq gusrfbsaxg yrmjgbs wgl bmnabs.
5
Sfolg6 %ngus yf`g! emp cagrgnbg an seg fllmbfsamn m gusrfbsaxgrmqflsq yfqkgns fbbmrcan` sm sergg cagrgns `mxgrnkgnsfyyrmfbeg. Mng m seg kms nmsabgfolg gfswrg m sea sergg+bmwnsrq bmkyframn a f kmrg ygbaagc fllmbfsamn m segrmqflsq yfqkgns fbbmrcan` sm cagrgns bgnsrfl `mxgrnkgnsgbsmr an Orfzal fnc Bealg. Ygrefy kms akymrsfnslq, segsfolg cgkmnsrfsg f kmrg rgcasraowsaxg kmcgl an Orfzal fncYgrw, bmkyfrgc sm f kmrg bgnsrflagc fllmbfsamn yfssgrn anBealg‑ bgnsrfl `mxgrnkgns.Bwrrgnslq, gusrfbsaxg ancwsrag frg ea`elq yrmasfolgowangg sefnd sm anbrgfan` yrmcwbsamn xmlwkg, fllan`yrmcwbsamn bms fnc easmrabfllq ea`e bmkkmcasq yrabg.Rggan` seg ea`e yrms m yraxfsg bmkyfnag, seg kmslq ymmrfrgf pegrg gusrfbsamn fbswfllq efyygn sraxg mr f ogssgrefrg m gusrfbsaxg rmqflsag. Kmrgmxgr, f mkg fwsemrfr`wg, seg srfsg`q wgc oq seg `mxgrnkgns sm casraowsgrmqflsag gnc wy befllgn`an` seg cgbaamn kfdan` bmnsgus mcgxglmykgns yrmkmsamn an wonfsamnfl `mxgrnkgns: an segfbg m anbrgfan` rmqflsq rgxgnwg, bmnabs fnc bmkygsasamnsm bmnsrml segg rgxgnwg flm anbrgfg. Sea lgfc sm fymlfragc ymlasabfl `fkg, rgwlsan` an emrs+sgrk ymlabagansgfc m yrmkmsan` lmn`+sgrk lmbfl cgxglmykgns yrmbgg.
1
Hmwrse, mkg bmnlabs frg fmbafsgc pase `mxgrnfnbgpgfdngg wbe f lfbd m srfnyfrgnbq mr seg yrggnbg mbmrrwysamn mr xamlgnbg an gusrfbsaxg yrmjgbs. Mn seg mng efnc,rwlg frg nms flpfq pgll+cgngc, lgfxan` rmmk mr anmrkflcgfl mr xamlgns gyamcg ogspggn bmkyfnq mabgr, sfsgrgyrggnsfsaxg fnc lmbfl baxal mbagsq lgfcgr. Mn seg msegrefnc, falwrg sm bmkylq pase yrmkag mr f`rggkgns oq fnq mseg yfrsag anxmlxgc an gusrfbsaxg yrmjgbs ef lgc sm bmnabskfanlq pegn segrg frg nms blgfr mr fbbgysgc rgfmn mr seglfbd m bmkylafnbg.Hmr gufkylg, mng m seg kms gxgrg bfg m ymllwsamn anLfsan Fkgrabf, dnmpn f seg Fkfzmn‑ Begrnmoql‑, pfbmkymwncgc oq yrmolgk m srfnyfrgnbq fnc bmrrwysamn.Seg bfg `mg fll seg pfq ofbd sm 6183 pegn Sgufbm %lfsgrywrbefgc oq Begxrmn! `fangc ygrkaamn sm gusrfbs mal an segGbwfcmrafn Fkfzmn rg`amn. Flsemw`e sea rg`amn pf emkgsm anca`gnmw bmkkwnasag, segq pgrg nms gxgn anmrkgcpegn seg anasafsamn m gusrfbsamn fbsaxasag og`fn. Hmr mxgr29 qgfr, seg bmkyfnq cwkygc pfsg ansm mygn yas an segmrgs, gramwlq fgbsan` seg gnxarmnkgns fnc anca`gnmwbmkkwnasag m seg rg`amn. _gbgnslq, an ?966, f jwc`g anGbwfcmr mwnc seg bmkyfnq lafolg mr WR #1 oallamn an blgfn+wybms, ows Begxrmn ef m fr rgwgc sm yfq.
69
5
Hmr f kmrg cgsfalgc cabwamn m emp rgns casraowsamn a rglfsgc sm gusrfbsaxg ancwsrag bmnabs an Lfsan Fkgrabf, rgfc seg GLLF Orag: _gns  Casraowsamn fnc Gusrfbsaxg Ancwsrq Bmnabs: Seg Lfsan Fkgrabfn Fyyrmfbeg.
1
 Frgllfnm, J. ?966.
½Kangrëf Ran Hrmnsgrf= Bmnabsm q Cgfrrmllm gn lf _g`amng Kangrf cgl Ygrú %Kanan` Pasemws Omrcgr= Bmnabs fnc Cgxglmykgns an seg Kanan` _g`amn m Ygrw 
!. WF_K, AGY ( YWBY, Lakf.
69
 Sm lgfrn kmrg fomws sea bfg, xaas seg pgoasg m seg Begxrmn Smuabm Bfkyfa`n.

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