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oracle demo

oracle demo

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Published by James Anderson

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Published by: James Anderson on Dec 08, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Page 1
Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance.When a database is started on a database server, Oracle allocates amemory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the SGA and the Oracleprocesses is called an Oracle instance.
Oracle instance background processes
Database Writer (DBW0 or DBWn)
Log Writer (LGWR)
Checkpoint (CKPT)
System Monitor (SMON)
Process Monitor (PMON)
 Archiver (ARCn)
Recoverer (RECO)
SGA contains the following data Structures
Database buffer cache
Redo log buffer 
Shared pool
Java pool
Large pool (optional)
Data dictionary cache
Other miscellaneous information
From Oracle9i We can change its SGA configuration while the instanceis running. With the dynamic SGA infrastructure, the sizes of the
a) Data buffer cache
shared pool
c) large pool
can be changed without shutting down the instance.
Page 2
database buffer cache
is divided intoa) D
irty list:
buffers that have been modified and are waiting tobe written into disk andb)
least recently used:
(LRU) list. Buffers that are unmodifiedcan be used as free buffers.Oracle9i supports multiple block size in a database. The default blocksize is the block size used for the System Tablespace. You specify thestandard block size by setting the initialization parameter 
.Legitimate values are from 2K to 32K. To specify the size of thestandard block size cache, you set the initialization parameter DB_CACHE_SIZE.Sizes and numbers of non-standard block size buffers are specified bythe following parameters:
Shared Pool portion
of the SGA contains three memorystructures.a)
Library Cache,
Data Dictionary and
Control Structures
 The size of the Shared Pool can be customized using the parameter 
Page 3
Oracle uses a ROWID datatype to store the address (rowid) of everyrow in the database.
Physical rowids
store the addresses of rows in ordinary tables(excluding index-organized tables), clustered tables, table partitionsand subpartitions, indexes, and index partitions and subpartitions.
Logical rowids
store the addresses of rows in index-organized tables.
Trace Files :
Each server and background process can write to an associated tracefile. When a process detects an internal error, it dumps informationabout the error to its trace file. If an internal error occurs andinformation is written to a trace file, the administrator should contactOracle support.
When one of the Oracle background processes (suchas
dbwr,lgwr,pmon,smonand so on
) encounter anexception, they will write to a
trace file
.These trace files are also recorded in thealert.log. Trace files are also created fordiagnostic dump events. AnORA-00600error also produces a trace file.
Alert Log File:
Each database also has an Alert log. The ALERT file of a database isa chronological log of messages and errors.
chronologically records messages anderrors arising from the daily database operation. Also, thereare pointers totrace filesand dump files.

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