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Shadows of the Colonial Past - Diverging Plant Use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

Shadows of the Colonial Past - Diverging Plant Use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

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Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

Rainer W. Bussmann1* & Douglas Sharon2

Abstract
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern
Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca,
and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early
colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean “Health Axis.”
Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

Rainer W. Bussmann1* & Douglas Sharon2

Abstract
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern
Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca,
and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early
colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean “Health Axis.”

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: oolon on Feb 03, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/22/2012

 
This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formattedPDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon.
Shadows of the colonial past - diverging plant use in Northern Peru andSouthern Ecuador
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 
2009,
5
:4 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-4Rainer W Bussmann (rainer.bussmann@mobot.org)Douglas Sharon (dk_sharon@sbc.global.net)
ISSN
1746-4269
Article type
Research
Submission date
19 November 2008
Acceptance date
2 February 2009
Publication date
2 February 2009
Article URL
http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/5/1/4This peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded,printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below).Articles in
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 
are listed in PubMed and archived at PubMedCentral.For information about publishing your research in
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 
or anyBioMed Central journal, go tohttp://www.ethnobiomed.com/info/instructions/ For information about other BioMed Central publications go tohttp://www.biomedcentral.com/ 
Journal of Ethnobiology andEthnomedicine
 © 2009 Bussmann and Sharon , licensee BioMed Central Ltd.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 
Shadowsofthecolonialpast–divergingplantuseinNorthernPeruandSouthernEcuador
RainerW.Bussmann
1*
&DouglasSharon
2
1
WilliamL.BrownCenter,MissouriBotanicalGarden,P.O.Box299,St.Louis,MO63166-0299,USA.phone:(314)577-9503,facsimile:(314)577-0800,e-mail:rainer.bussmann@mobot.org,*correspondingauthor
2
2328DolphinDr.,Richmond,CA94804,USA.e-mail:dk_sharon@sbc.global.net
Abstract
ThispaperexaminesthetraditionaluseofmedicinalplantsinNorthernPeruandSouthernEcuador,withspecialfocusontheDepartmentsofPiura,Lambayeque,LaLibertad,Cajamarca,andSanMartin,andinLojaprovince,withspecialfocusonthedevelopmentsincetheearlycolonialperiod.NorthernPerurepresentsthelocusoftheoldCentralAndean“HealthAxis.”TherootsoftraditionalhealingpracticesinthisregiongoasfarbackastheCupisniquecultureearlyinthefirstmillenniumBC.NorthernPeruandSouthernEcuadorsharethesameculturalcontextandflorabutshowstrikingdifferencesinplantuseandtraditionalknowledge.TwohundredfifteenplantspeciesusedformedicinalpurposesinEcuadorand510plantspeciesusedformedicinalpurposesinPeruwerecollected,identified,.andtheirvernacularnames,traditionaluses,andapplicationsrecorded.Thisnumberofspeciesindicatesthatthehealers,marketvendors,andmembersofthepublicinterviewedinPerustillhaveaveryhighknowledgeofplantsintheirsurroundings,whichcan
 
beseenasareflectionoftheknowledgeofthepopulationingeneral.InEcuadormuchoftheoriginalplantknowledgehasalreadybeenlost.InPeru,433(85%)wereDicotyledons,46(9%)Monocotyledons,21(4%)Pteridophytes,and5(1%)Gymnosperms.Threespeciesof
Giartina
(Algae)andonespeciesoftheLichengenus
Siphula
wereused.ThefamiliesbestrepresentedwereAsteraceaewith69species,Fabaceae(35),Lamiaceae(25),andSolanaceae(21).Euphorbiaceaehad12species,andPoaceaeandApiaceaeeachaccountedfor11species.InEcuadorthefamiliesbestrepresentedwereAsteraceae(32species),Euphorbiaceae,Lamiaceae,andSolanaceae(11specieseach),andApiaceae,Fabaceae,Lycopodiaceae(9specieseach).Onehundredeighty-two(85%)ofthespeciesusedwereDicotyledons,20Monocotyledons(9.3%),12ferns(5.5%),andoneunidentifiedlichenwasused.Mostoftheplantsused(83%)werenativetoPeruandEcuador.Freshplants,oftencollectedwild,wereusedintwothirdsofallcasesinPeru,butinalmost95%ofthecasesinEcuador.Themostcommonapplicationsincludedtheingestionofherbdecoctionsortheapplicationofplantmaterialaspoultices.Althoughabout50%oftheplantsinuseinthecolonialperiodhavedisappearedfromthepopularpharmacopoeia,theoverallnumberofplantspeciesusedmedicinallyhasincreasedinNorthernPeru,whileSouthernEcuadorshowsadeclineofplantknowledgesincecolonialtimes.
Introduction
 Antecedents-MedicinalPlantResearchandTraditionalMedicineinPeru

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